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ACQUETS, estates in the civil law. Property which has been acquired by purchase, gift or otherwise than by succession. Merlin Rep. h. t., confines acquets to immovable property.

2. In Louisiana they embrace the profits of all the effects, of which the hushand has the administration and enjoyment, either of right or in fact, of the produce of the reciprocal industry and labor of both hushand and wife, and of the estates which they may acquire during the marriage, either by donations, made jointly to them both, or by purchase, or in any other similar way, even although the purchase be only in the name of one of the two, and not of both, because in that case the period of time when the purchase is made is alone attended to, and not the person who made the purchase. Civ. Code, art. 2371.

3. This applies to all marriages contracted in that state, or out of it, when the parties afterward go there to live, as to acquets afterward made there.Ib. art. 2370.

4. The acquets are divided into two equal portions between the hushand and wife, or between their heirs at the dissolution of their marriage. Ib. art. 2375.

5. "The Parties may, however, lawfully stipulate there shall be no community of profits or gains. Ib. art. 2369.

6. But the parties have no right to agree that they shall be governed by the laws of another country.' 3 Martin's Rep. 581. Vide 17 Martin's Rep. 571 2 Kent's Com. 153, note.

ACQUIESCENCE, contracts. The consent which is impliedly given by one or both parties, to a proposition, a clause, a condition, a judgment, or to any act whatever.

2. When a party is bound to elect between a paramount right and a testamentary disposition, his acquiescence in a state of things which indicates an election, when he was aware of his rights will be prima facie evidence of such election. Vide 2 Ves. Jr. 371; 12 Ves. 136 1 Ves. Jr. 335; 3 P. Wms. 315. 2 Rop. Leg. 439.

3. The acts of acquiescence which constitute an implied election, must be decided rather by the circumstances of each case than by any general principle. 1 Swanst. R. 382, note, and the numerous cases there cited.

4. Acquiescence in the acts of an agent, or one who has assumed that character, will, be equivalent to an express authority. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1309; Kent, Com. 478; Story on Eq. 255; 4 W. C. C. R. 559; 6 Miss. R. 193; 1 John. Cas. 110; 2 John. Cas. 424 Liv. on Ag. 45; Paley on, Ag. by Lloyd, 41 Pet. R. 69, 81; 12 John. R. 300; 3 Cowen's R. 281; 3 Pick. R. 495, 505; 4 Mason's R. 296. Acquiescence differs from assent. (q. v.)

ACQUIETANDIS PLEGIIS, obsolete. A writ of justices, lying, for the surety against a creditor, who refuses to acquit him after the debt has been satisfied. Reg. of Writs, 158; Cowell; Blount.

TO ACQUIRE, descents, contracts. To make property one's own.

2. Title to property is acquired in two ways, by descent, (q. v.) and by purchase, (q. v.) Acquisition by purchase, is either by, 1. Escheat. 2. Occupancy. 3. Prescription. 4. Forfeiture. 5. Alienation, which is either by deed or by matter of record. Things which cannot be sold, cannot be acquired.

ACQUISITION, property, contracts, descent. The act by which the person procures the property of a thing.

2. An acquisition, may be temporary or Perpetual, and be procured either for a valuable consideration, for example, by buying the same; or without consideration, as by gift or descent.

3. Acquisition may be divided into original and derivative. Original acquisition is procured by occupancy, 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 490; 2 Kent. Com. 289; Menstr. Leg. du Dr. Civ. Rom. 344 ; by accession, 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 499; 2 Kent., Com. 293; by intellectual labor, namely, for inventions, which are secured by patent rights and for the authorship of books, maps, and charts, which is protected by copyrights. 1. Bouv. Inst. n. 508.

4. Derivative acquisitions are those which are procured. from others, either by act of law, or by act of the parties. Goods and chattels may change owners by act of law in the cases of forfeiture, succession, marriage, judgment, insolvency, and intestacy. And by act of the parties, by gift or sale. Property may be acquired by a man himself, or by those who are in his power, for him; as by his children while minors; 1 N. Hamps. R. 28; 1 United States Law Journ. 513 ; by his apprentices or his slaves. Vide Ruth. Inst. ch. 6 & 7; Dig. 41, 1, 53; Inst. 2,9; Ib. 2,9,3.

ACQUITTAL, contracts. A release or discharge from an obligation or eng agement. According to Lord Coke there are three kinds of acquittal, namely; 1, By deed, when the party releases the obligation; 2, By prescription; 3, By tenure.Co. Lit. 100, a.

ACQUITTAL, crim. law practice. The absolution of a party charged with a crime or misdemeanor.

2. Technically speaking, acquittal is the absolution of a party accused on a trial before a traverse jury. 1 N. & M. 36; 3 M'Cord, 461.

3. Acquittals are of two kinds, in fact and in law. The former takes place when the jury upon trial finds a verdict of not guilty; the latter when a man is charged merely as an accessary, and the principal has been acquitted. 2 Inst. 384. An acquittal is a bar to any future prosecution for the offence alleged in the first indictment.

ACQUITTANCE, contracts. An agreement in writing to discharge a party from an engagement to pay a sum of money. it is evidence of payment. It differs from a release in this, that the latter must be under seal, while an acquittance need not be under seal. Poth. Oblig. n. 781. In Pennsylvania, a receipt, (q. v.) though not under seal, has nearly the same effect as a release. 1 Rawle, R. 391. Vide 3 Salk. 298, pl. 2; Off. of Ex. 217 ; Co. Litt. 212 a, 273 a.

ACRE, measures. A quantity of land containing in length forty perches, and four in breadth, or one hundred and sixty square perches, of whatever shape may be the land. Serg. Land Laws of Penn., 185. See Cro. Eliz. 476, 665; 6 Co. 67; Poph. 55; Co. Litt. 5, b, and note 22.

ACREDULITARE, obsolete. To purge one's self of an offence by oath. It frequently happens that when a person has been arrested for a contempt, he comes into court and purges himself, on oath, of having intended any contempt. Blount, Leges. Inac. c. 36.

ACT, civil law, contracts. A writing which states in a legal form that a thing has been said, done, or agreed. In Latin, Instrumentum. Merl. Rep.

ACT. In the legal sense, this word may be used to signify the result of a public deliberation, the decision of a prince, of a legislative body, of a council, court of justice, or a magistrate. Also, a decree, edict, law, judgment, resolve, award, determination. Also, an instrument in writing to verify facts, as act of assembly, act of congress, act of parliament, act and deed. See Webster's Dict. Acts are civil or criminal, lawful or unlawful, public or private.

2. Public acts, usually denominated authentic, are those which have a public authority, and which have been made before public officers, are authorized by a public seal, have been made public by the authority of a magistrate, or which have been extracted and been properly authenticated from public records.

3. Acts under private signature are those which have been made by private individuals, under their hands. An act of this kind does not acquire the force of an authentic act, by being registered in the office of a notary. 5 N. S. 693; 8 N. S. 568 ; 3 L. R. 419 ; 8 N. S. 396 ; 11 M. R. 243; unless it hasheen properly acknowledged before the officer, bythe parties to it. 5 N. S. 196.

4. Private acts are those made by private persons, as registers in relation to their receipts and expenditures, schedules, acquittances, and the like. Nov. 73, c. 2 ; Code, lib. 7, tit. 32, 1. 6; lib. 4, t. 21; Dig. lib. 22, tit.. 4; Civ. Code of Louis. art. 2231 to 2254; Toull. Dr. Civ. Francais, tom. 8, p. 94.

ACT, evidence. The act of one of several conspirators, performed in pursuance of the common design, is evidence against all of them. An overt act of treason must be proved by two witnesses. See Overt.

2. The terra. acts, includes written correspondence, and other papers relative to the design of the parties, but whether it includes unpublished writings upon abstract questions, though of a kindred nature, has been doubted, Foster's Rep. 198 ; 2 Stark. R. 116, 141.

3. In cases of partnership it is a rule that the act or declaration of either partner, in furtherance of the common object of the association, is the act of all. 1 Pet. R. 371 5 B. & Ald. 267.

4. And the acts. of an agent, in pursuance of his authority, will be binding on his principal. Greenl. Ev. 113. ACT, legislation. A statute or law made by a legislative body; as an act of congress is a law by the congress of the United States; an act of assembly is a law made by a legislative assembly. If an act of assembly expire or be repealed while a proceeding under it is in fieri or pending, the proceeding becomes abortive; as a prosecution for an offence, 7 Wheat. 552; or a proceeding under insolvent laws. 1 Bl. R. 451; Burr. 1456 ; 6 Cranch, 208 ; 9 Serg. & Rawle, 283.

2. Acts are general or special; public or private. A general or public act is a universal rule which binds the whole community; of which the courts are bound to take notice ex officio.

3. Explanatory acts should not be enlarged by equity Blood's case, Comb. 410; although such acts may be allowed to have a retrospective operation. Dupin, Notions de Droit, 145. 9.

4. Private or special acts are rather exceptions, than rules; being those which operate only upon particular persons and private concerns; of these the courts are not bound to take notice, unless they are pleaded. Com. 85, 6; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 105.

ACT IN PAIS. An act performed out of court, and not a matter of record. Pais, in law French, signifies country. A deed or an assurance transacted between two or more private persons in the country is matter in pais. 2 Bl. Com. 294.

ACT OF BANKRUPTCY. An act which subjects a person to be proceeded against as a bankrupt. The acts of bankruptcy enumerated in the late act of congress, of 19th Aug. 1841, s. 1, are the following: 1. Departure from the state, district, or territory of which a person, subject to the operation of the bankrupt laws, is an inhabitant, with intent to defraud his creditors. See, as to what will be considered a departure, 1 Campb. R. 279; Dea. & Chit. 4511 Rose, R. 387 9 Moore, R. 217 2 V. & B. 177; 5 T. R. 512; 1 C. & P. 77; 2 Bini,. R. 99; 2 Taunt. 176; Holt, R. 175.

2. Concealment to avoid being arrested. 1 M. & S. 676 ; 2 Rose, R. 137; 15 Ves. 4476 Taunt. R. 540; 14 Ves. 86 Taunt. 176;1 Rose, R. 362; 5 T. R. 512; 1 Esp. 334.

3. Willingly or fraudulently procuring himself to be arrested, or his goods and chattels, lands, or tenements to be attached, distrained, sequestered, or taken in execution.

4. Removal of his goods, chattels and effects, or concealment of them to prevent their being levied upon, or taken in execution, or by other process.

5. Making any fraudulent conveyance, assignment, sale, gift, or other transfer of his lands, tenements, goods, or chattels, credits, or evidences of debt. 15 Wend. R. 588; 5 Cowen, R. 67; 1 Burr. 467, 471, 481; 4 C. & P. 315; 18 Wend. R. 375; 19 Wend. R. 414; 1 Dougl. 295; 7 East, 137 16 Ves. 149; 17 Ves. 193; 1 Smith R. 33; Rose, R. 213.

ACT OF GOD, in contracts. This phrase denotes those accidents which arise from physical causes, and which cannot be prevented.

2. Where the law casts a duty on a party, the performance shall be excused, if it be rendered impossible by the act of God; but where the party, byhis own contract, engages to do an act, it is deemed to be his own fault and folly that he did not thereby provide against contingencies, and exempt himself from responsibilities in certain events and in such case, (that is, in the instance of an absolute general contract the performance is not excused by an inevitable accident, or other contingency, although not foreseen by, nor within the control of the party. Chitty on Contr. 272, 8; Aleyn, 27, cited by Lawrence; J. in 8 T. R. 267; Com. Dig. Action upon the Case upon Assumpsit, G; 6 T. R. 650 ; 8 T. R. 259; 3 M. & S. 267 ; 7 Mass. 325; 13 Mass. 94; Co. Litt. 206; Com. Dig. Condition, D 1, L 13; 2 Bl. Com. 340; 1 T. R. 33; Jones on Bailm 104, 5 ; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1024.

3. Special bail are discharged when the defendant dies, Tidd, 243 ; actus Dei nemini facit injuriam being a maxim of law, applicable in such case; but if the defendant die after the return of the case and before it is filed, the bail are fixed. 6 T. R. 284; 6 Binn. 332, 338. It is, however, no ground for an exoneratur, that the defendant has become deranged since the suit was brought, and is confined in a hospital. 2 Wash. C. C. R. 464, 6 T. It. 133 Bos. & Pull. 362 Tidd, 184. Vide 8 Mass. Rep. 264; 3 Yeates, 37; 2 Dall. 317; 16 Mass. Rep. 218; Stra. 128; 1 Leigh's N, P. 508; 11 Pick. R. 41; 2 Verm. R. 92; 2 Watt's Rep. 443. See generally, Fortuitous Event; Perils of the Sea.

ACT OF GRACE, Scotch law. The name by which the statute which provides for the aliment of prisoners confined for civil debts, is usually known.

2. This statute provides that where a prisoner for debt declares upon oath, before the magis trate of the jurisdiction, that he has not wherewith to maintain himself, the magistrate may set him it liberty, if the creditor, in consequence of whose diligence he was imprisoned, does not aliment him within ten days after intimation for that purpose. 1695, c. 32; Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4, 3, 14. This is somewhat similar to a provision in the insolvent act of Pennsylvania.

ACT 0F LAW. An event which occurs in consequence of some principle of law. If, for example, land out of which a rent charge has been granted, be recovered by an elder title, and thereby the rent charge becomes avoided; yet the grantee, shall have a writ of annuity, because the rent charge is made void by due course or act of law, it, being a actus legis nemini est damnosus. 2 Inst. 287.

ACT OF MAN. Every man of sound mind and discretion is bound by his own acts, and the law does not permit him to do any thing against it; and all acts are construed most strongly against him who does them. Plowd. 140.

2. A man is not only bound by his own acts, but by those of others who act or are presumed to act by his authority, and is responsible civilly in all such cases; and, in some cases, even when there is but a presumption of authority, he may be made responsible criminally; for example, a bookseller may be indicted for publishing a libel which has been sold in his store, by his regular salesmen, although he may possibly have had no knowledge of it.

ACTIO BONAE FIDEI, civil law. An action of good faith.

ACTIO COMMODATI CONTRARIA. The name of an action in the civil law, by the borrower against the lender, to compel the execution of the contract. Poth. Pret Usage, n. 75.

ACTIO COMMODATI DIRECTA. In the civil law, is the name of an action, by a lender against a borrower, the principal object of which is to obtain restitution of the thing lent. Poth. Pret. 5, Usage, n. 65, 68.

ACTIO CONDICTIO INDEBITI. The name of an action in the civil law, by which the plaintiff recovers the amount of a sum of money or other thing be paid by mistake. Poth. Promutuum, n. 140. See Assumpsit.

ACTIO EXCONDUCTIO, civil law. The name of an action which the bailor of a thing for hiremay bring against the bailee, in order to compel him to redeliver the thing hired. Poth. du Contr. de Louage, n. 59.

ACTIO DEPOSITI CONTRARIA. The name, of an action in the civil law which the depositary has against the depositor to compel him to fulfil his engagement towards him. Poth. Du Depot, la. 69.

ACTIO DEPOSITI DIRECTA. the civil law, this is the name of an action which is brought by the depositor against the depositary, in order to get back the, thing deposited. Poth. Du Depot, n. 60.

ACTIO JUDICATI, civil law. Was an action instituted, after four months had elapsed after the rendition of judgment, in which the judge issued his warrant to seize, first, the movables, which were sold within eight days afterwards; and then the immovables, which were delivered in pledge to the creditors, or put under the care of a curator, and, if at the end of two mouths, the debt was not paid, the land was sold. Dig. 42, t. 1. Code, 8, 34.

ACTIO NON, pleading. After stating the appearance and defence, special pleas begin with this allegation, "that the said plaintiff ought not to have or maintain his aforesaid action thereof against him," actio non habere debet. This is technically termed the actio non. 1 Ch. Plead. 531 2 Ch. Plead. 421 ; Steph. Plead. 394.

ACTIO NON ACCREVIT INFRA SEX ANNOS. The name of a plea to the statute of limitations when the defendant insists that the plaintiff's action has not accrued within six years. It differs from non assumpsit in this: non assumpsit is the proper plea to an action on a simple contract, when the action accrues on the promise but when it does not accrue on the promise but subsequently to it, the proper plea is actio non accrevit, &c. Lawes, Pl. in Ass. 733; 5 Binn. 200, 203; 2 Salk. 422; 1 Saund. Rep. 83 n. 2; 2 Saund, 63, b; 1 Sell. N.P. 121.

ACTIO PERSONALIS MIORITUR CUM PERSONA. That a personal action dies with the person, is an ancient and uncontested maxim. But the term personal action, requires explanation. In a large sense all actions except those for the recovery of real property may be called personal. This definition would include contracts for the payment of money, which never were supposed to die with the person. See 1 Saund. Rep. 217, note 1.

2. The maxim must therefore be taken in a more restricted meaning. It extends to all wrongs attended with actual force, whether the affect the person or property and to all injuries to the person only, though without actual force. Thus stood originally the common law, in which an alteration was made by the statute 4 Ed. III. c. 7, which gave an action to an executor for an injury done to the personal property of his testator in his lifetime, which was extended to the executor of an executor, by statute of 25 Ed. III. c. 5. And by statute 31 Ed. III. c. 11, administrators have the same remedy as executors.

3. These statutes received a liberal construction from the judges, but they do not extend to injuries to the person of the deceased, nor to his freehold. So that no action lies by an executor or administrator for an assault and battery of the deceased, or trespass, vi et armis on his land, or for slander, because it is merely a personal injury. Neither do they extend to actions against executors or administrators for wrongs committed by the deceased. 13 S. 184; Cowp. 376; 1 Saund. 216, 217, n. 1; Com. Dig 241, B 13; 1 Salk. 252; 6 S. & R. 272; W. Jones, 215.

4. Assumpsit may be maintained by executors or administrators, in those cases where an injury has been done to the personal, property of the deceased, and he might in his lifetime have waived the tort and sued in assumpsit. 1 Bay's R. 61; Cowp. 374; 3 Mass. 321; 4 Mass. 480; 13 Mass. 272; 1 Root, 2165. An action for a breach of a promise of marriage cannot be maintained by an executor, 2 M. & S. 408; nor against 13 S. & R. 183; 1 Picker. 71; unless, perhaps, where the plaintiff's testator sustained special damages. 13 S. & R. 185. See further 12.S. & R. 76; 1 Day's Cas. 180; Bac. Abr. Ejectment, H11 Vin. Abr. 123; 1 Salk. 314; 2 Ld. Raym. 971 1 Salk. 12 Id. 295; Cro. Eliz. 377, 8 1 Str. 60 Went. Ex. 65; 1 Vent. 176 id. so; 7 Serg. & R. 183; 7 East, 134-6 1 Saund. 216, a, n. 1; 6 Mass. 394; 2 Johns. 227; 1 Bos. & Pull. 330, n. a.; 1 Chit. Pi. 86; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2750; this Dictionary, tit. actions; Death; Parties to actions; Survivor.

ACTIO PRO SOCIO. In the civil law, is the name of an action by which either partner could compel his co-partners to perform their social contract. Poth. Contr. de Societe, n. 134.

ACTION. Conduct, behaviour, something done. Nomen actionis latissime patere vulgo notum est ac comprehenders omnem omnino viventis operationem quae passioni opponitur. Vinnius, Com. lib. 4, tit. 6. De actionibus.

2. Human actions have been divided into necessary actions, or those over which man has no control; and into free actions, or such as he can control at his pleasure. As man is responsible only when he exerts his will, it is clear lie can be punished only for the Iatter.

3. Actions are also divided into positives and negative the former is called an act of commision the latter is the omission of something which ought to be done, and is called an act of omission. A man may be responsible as well for acts of omission, as for acts of commission.

4. Actions are voluntary and involuntary. The former are performed freely and without constraint the latter are performed not by choice, against one's will or in a manner independent of the will. In general a man is not responsible for his involuntary actions. Yet it has been ruled that if a lunatic hurt a man, he shall be answerable in trespass, although, if he kill a man, it is not felony. See Hob. Rep. 134; Popham, 162; Pam. N. P. 68. See also Duress; Will.

ACTION, French com. law. Stock in a coompany, shares in a corporation.

ACTION, in practice. Actio nihil aliud est, quam jus persequendi in judicio quod sibi debetur. Just. Inst. Lib. 4, tit. 6; Vinnius, Com. Actions are divided into criminal and civil. Bac. Abr. Actions, A. 2. 1. A criminal action is a prosecution in a court of justice in the name of the government, against one or more individuals accused of a crime. See 1 Chitly's Cr. Law.

1. 2. A civil action is a legal demand of one's right, or it is the form given by law for the recovery of that which is due. Co. Litt. 285; 3 Bl. Com. 116; 9 Bouv. Inst. n. 2639; Domat. Supp. des Lois Civiles, liv. 4, tit. 1, No. 1; Poth. Introd. generale aux Coutumes, 109; 1 Sell. Pr. Introd. s. 4, p. 73. Ersk. Princ. of Scot. Law, B. 41 t. 1. 1. Till judgment the writ is properly called an action, but not after, and therefore, a release of all actions is regularly no bar of all execution. Co. Litt. 289 a; Roll. Ab. 291. They are real, personal and mixed. An action is real or personal, according as realty or personalty is recovered; not according to the nature of the defence. Willes' Rep. 134.

4. 1. Real actions are those brought for the specific recovery of lands, tenements, or hereditaments. Steph. PI. 3. They are either droitural, when the demandant seeks to recover the property; or possessory when he endeavors to obtain the possession. Finch's Law, 257, 8. See Bac. Abr. Actions, A, contra. Real Actions are, 1st. Writs of right; 2dly, Writs of entry, which lie in the per, the per et cui, or the post, upon disseisin, intrusion. or alienation. 3dly. Writs ancestral possessory, as Mort d' ancester, aid, besaiel, cosinage, or Nuper obiit. Com. Dig. Actions, D 2. By these actions formerly all disputes concerning real estate, were decided; but now they are pretty generally laid aside in practice, upon account of the great nicety required in their management, and the inconvenient length of their process; a much more expeditious, method of trying titles being since introduced by other actions, personal and mixed. 3 Bl. Com. 118. See Booth on Real Actions.

5. 2. Personal actions are those brought for the specific recovery of goods and chattels; or for damages or other redress for breach of contract, or other injuries, of whatever description; the specific recovery of lands, tenements, and hereditaments only excepted. Steph. PI. 3; Com. Dig. Actions, D 3; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2641. Personal actions arise either upon contracts, or for wrongs independently of contracts. The former are account, assumpsit, covenant, debt, and detinue; see these words. In Connecticut and Vermont there is, an action used which is peculiar to those states, called the action of book debt. 2 Swift's Syst. Ch. 15. The actions for wrongs, injuries, or torts, are trespass on the case, replevin, trespass, trover. See these words, and see Actio personalis moritur cum persona.

6. 3. Mixed actions are such as appertain, in some degree, to both the former classes, and, therefore, are properly reducible to neither of them, being brought for the specific recovery of lands, tenements, or hereditaments, and for damages for injury sustained in respect of such property. Steph. Pl. 3; Co. Litt. 284, b; Com. Dig. Actions, D 4. Every mixed action, properly so called, is also a real action. The action of ejectment is a personal action, and formerly, a count for an assault and battery might be joined with a count for the recovery of a term of Years in land.

7. Actions are also divided into those which are local and such as are transitory.

1. A local action is one in which the venue must still be laid in the county, in which the cause of action actually arose. The locality of actions is founded in some cases, on common law principles, in others on the statute law.

8. Of those which continue local, by the common law, are, lst, all actions in which the subject or thing to be recovered is in its nature local. Of this class are real actions, actions of waste, when brought on the statute of Gloucester, (6 Edw. I.) to recover with the damages, the locus in quo or place wasted; and actions of ejectment. Bac. Abr. Actions Local, &c. A, a; Com. Dig. Actions, N 1; 7 Co. 2 b; 2 Bl. Rep. 1070. All these are local, because they are brought to recover the seisin or possession of lands or tenements, which are local subjects.

9. 2dly. Various actions which do not seek the direct recovery of lands or tenements, are also local, by the common law; because they arise out of some local subject, or the violation of some local right or interest. For example, the action of quare impedit is local, inasmuch as the benefice, in the right of presentationto which the plaintiff complains of being obstructed, is so. 7 Co. 3 a; 1 Chit. PI. 271; Com. Dig. Actions, N 4. Within this class of cases are also many actions in which only pecuniary damages are recoverable. Such are the common law action of waste, and trespass quare clausum fregit; as likewise trespass on the case for injuries affecting things real, as for nuisances to houses or lands; disturbance of rights of way or of common; obstruction or diversion of ancient water courses, &c. 1 Chit. Pl. 271; Gould on Pl. ch. 3, 105, 106, 107. The action of replevin, also, though it lies for damages only, and does not arise out of the violation of any local right, is nevertheless local. 1 Saund. 347, n. 1. The reason of its locality appears to be the necessity of giving a local description of the taking complained of. Gould on PI. ch. 3, 111. A scire facias upon a record, (which is an action, 2 Term Rep. 46,) although to some intents, a continuation of the original suit, 1 Term Rep. 388, is also local.

10. 2. Personal actions which seek nothing more than the recovery of money or personal chattels of any kind, are in most cases transitory, whether they sound in tort or in contract; Com. Dig. Actions, N 12; 1 Chit. PI. 273; because actions of this class are, in most instances, founded on the violation of rights which, in contemplation of law, have no locality. 1 Saund. 241, b, note 6. And it will be found true, as a general position, that actions ex delicto, in which a mere personalty is recoverable, are, by the common law, transitory;except when founded upon, or arising out of some local subject. Gould on Pl. ch. 3, 112. The venue in a transitory action may be laid in any county which the plaintiff may prefer. Bac. Abr. Actions Local, &c. A. (a.)

11. In the civil law actions are divided into real, personal, and mixed. A real action, according to the civil law, is that which he who is the owner of a thing, or, has a right in it, has against him who is in possession of it, to compel him to give up the plaintiff, or to permit him to enjoy the right he has in it. It is a right which a person has in a thing, follows the thing, and may be instituted against him who possesses it; and this whether the thing be movable or immovable and, in the sense of the common law, whether the thing be real or personal. See Domat, Supp. des Lois Civiles, Liv. 4, tit. 1, n. 5; Pothier, Introd. Generales aux Coutumes 110; Ersk. Pr. Scot. Law, B. 4, t. 1, 2.

12. A personal action is that which a creditor has against his debtor, to compel him to fulfil his engagement. Pothier, lb. Personal actions are divided into civil actions and criminal actions. The former are those which are instituted to compel the payment or to do some other thing purely civil the latter are those by which the plaintiff asks the reparation of a tort or injury which he or those who belong to him have sustained. Sometimes these two kinds of actions are united when they assume the name of mixed personal actions. Domat, Supp. des Lois Civiles, Liv. 4, tit. 1, n. 4; 1 Brown's Civ. Law, 440.

13. Mixed actions participate both of personal and real actions. Such are the actions of partition, and to compel the parties to put down landmarks or boundaries. Domat, ubi supra.

ACTION AD EXHIBENDUM, civil law. This was an action instituted for the purpose of compelling the defendant to exhibit a thing or title, in his power. It was preparatory to another action, which was always a real action in the sense of the Roman law, that is, for the recovery of a thing, whether it was movable or immovable. Merl. Quest. de Dr. tome i. 84. This is not unlike a bill of discovery. (q. v.)

ACTION OF ADHERENCE, Scotch law. An action competent to a hushand or Wife to compel either party to adhere in case of desertion.

ACTION OF BOOK DEBT. The name of an action in Connecticutand Vermont, resorted to for the purpose of recovering payment for articles usually charged on book. 1 Day, 105; 4 Day, 105; 2 Verm, 66. See 1 Root, 59; 1 Conn. 75; Kirby, 89; 2 Robt, 130; 11 Conn. 205.

ACTION. REDHIBITORY, civil law. An action instituted to avoid a sale on account of some Vice or defect in the thing sold which readers it either absolutely useless, or its use so inconvenient and, imperfect, that it must be, supposed the buyer would not have purchased it, had he known of the vice. Civ. Code of Louis. art. 2496.

ACTION OF A WRIT. This phrase is used when one pleads some matter by which he shows that the plaintiff had no cause to have the writ which he brought, and yet he may have a writ or action for the same matter. Such a plea is called: a plea to the action of the writ, whereas if it should appear by the plea that the plaintiff has no cause to have action for the thing demanded, then it is called a plea to the action. Termes de la ley.

ACTIONS ORDINARY. Scotch law. By this term is understood all actions not recissory. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4, 1, 5.

ACTIONS RESCISSORY, Scotch law. Are divided into, 1, Actions of proper improbation; 2, Actions of reduction-improbation; 3, Actions of simple reduction. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 4 1, 5,

2. 1. Proper improbation is an action brought for declaring writing false or forged.

3. 2. Reduction-improbation is an action whereby a person who may be hurt, or affected by a writing, insists for producing or exhibiting it in court, in order to have it set aside or its effects ascertained, under the certification, that the writing if not produced, shall be declared false and forged.

4. 3. In an action of simple reduction, the certification is only temporary, declaring the writings called for, null, until they be produced; so that they recover their full force after their production. Ib. 4, 1, 8.

ACTIONARY. A commercial term used among foreigners, to signify stockholders.

ACTIONES NOMINATAE. Formerly the English courts of chancery would make no writs when there was no precedent, and the cases for which there were precedents were called actiones nominatoe. The statute of Westm. 2, c. 24, gave chancery authority to form new writs in consimili casu. Hence arose the action on the case. Bac. Ab. Court of Chancery, A; 17, Serg. R. 195.

ACTIVE. The opposite, of passive. We say active debts, or debts due to us; passive debts are those we owe.

ACTON BURNELL. Statute of Vide de Mercatoribus. Cruise, Dig. tit. 14, s. 6.

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