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ANSWER, practice. The declaration of a fact by a witness after a question has been put asking for it.

2. If a witness unexpectedly state facts against the interest of the party calling him, other witnesses may be called by the same party, to disprove those facts. But the party calling a witness cannot discredit him, by calling witnesses to prove his bad character for truth and veracity, or by proving that he has made statements out of court contrary to what he has sworn on the trial; B. N. P.; for the production of the witness is virtually an assertion by the party producing him, that he is credible.

ANTECEDENT. Something that goes before. In the construction of laws, agreements, and the like, reference is always to be made to the last antecedent; ad proximun antecedens fiat relatio. But not only the antecedents but the subsequent clauses of the instrument must be considered: Ex antecedentibus et consequentibus fit optima interpretatio.

/B>. Before suit brought, before controversy moved.

ANTEDATE. To, put a date to an instrument of a time before the time it was written. Vide Date.

ANTENATI. Born before. This term is applied to those who were born or resided within the United States before or at the time of the declaration of independence. These had all the rights of citizens. 2 Kent, Com. 51, et seq.

ANTE-NUPTIAL. What takes place before marriage; as, an ante-nuptial agreement, which is an agreement made between a man and a woman in contemplation of marriage. Vide Settlement.

ANTHETARIUS, obsolete See Anti-thetarius.

ANTI-MANlFESTO. The declaration of the reasons which one of the belligerents publishes, to show that the war as to him is defensive. Wolff, 1187. See Manifesto.

ANTlCIPATION. The act of doing or taking a thing before its proper time.

2. In deeds of trust there is frequently a provision that the income of the estate shall be paid by the trustee as it shall accrue, and not by way of anticipation. A payment made contrary to such provision would not be considered as a discharge of the trustee.

ANTICHRESIS, contracts. A word used in the civil law to denote the contract by which a creditor acquires the right of reaping the fruit or other revenues of the immovables given to him in pledge, on condition of deducting, annually, their proceeds from the interest, if any is due to him, and afterwards from the principal of his debt. Louis. Code, art. 3143 Dict. de Juris. Antichrese, Mortgage; Code Civ. 2085. Dig. 13, 7, 7 ; 4, 24, 1 Code, 8, 28, 1.

ANTINOMY. A term used in the civil law to signify the real or apparent contradiction between two laws or two decisions. Merl. Repert. h. t. Vide Conflict of Laws.

ANTIQUA CUSTOMA, Eng. law. A duty or imposition which was collected on wool, wool-felts, and leather, was so called. This custom was called nova customa until the 22 Edw. I., when the king, without parliament, set a new imposition of 40s. a sack, and then, for the first time, the nova customa went by the name of antiqua customa. Bac. Ab. Smuggling &c. B.

ANTIQUA STATUTA. In England the statutes are divided into new and ancient statutes; since the time of memory; those from the time 1 R. I. to E. III., are called antiqua statuta those made since, nova statuta.

ANTITHETARIUS, old English law. The name given to a man who endeavors to discharge himself of the crime of which he is accused, by retorting the charge on the accuser. He differs from an approver (q, v.) in this, that the latter does not charge the accuser, but others. Jacob's Law Dict.

APARTMENTS. A part of a house occupied by a person, while the rest is occupied by another, or others. 7 Mann. & Gr. 95 ; 6 Mod. 214 ; Woodf. L. & T. 178. See House.

APOSTACY, Eng. law. A total renunciation of the Christian religion, and differs from heresy. (q. v.) This offence is punished by the statute of 9 and 10 W. III. c. 32. Vide Christianity.

APOSTLES. In the British courts of admiralty, when a party appeals from a decision made against him, he prays apostles from the judge, which are brief letters of dismission, stating the case, and declaring that the record will be transmitted. 2 Brown's Civ. and Adm. Law, 438; Dig. 49. 6.

2. This term was used in the civil law. It is derived from apostolos, a Greek word, which signifies one sent, because the judge from whose sentence an appeal was made, sent to the superior judge these letters of dismission, or apostles. Merl. Rep. mot Apotres.

APPARATOR or APPARITOR, eccles. law. An officer or messenger employed to serve the process of the spiritual courts in England.

APPARENT. That which is manifest what is proved. It is required that all things upon which a court must pass, should be made to appear, if matter in pays, under oath if matter of record, by the record. It is a rule that those things which do not appear, are to be considered as not existing de non apparentibus et non existentibus eadem est ratio. Broom's Maxims, 20, What does not appear, does not exist; quod non apparet, non est.

APPARLEMENT. Resemblance. It is said to be derived from pareillement, French, in like manner. Cunn. Dict. h. t.

APPEAL, English crim. law. The accusation of a person, in a legal form, for a crime committed by him; or, it is the lawful declaration of another man's crime, before a competent judge, by one who sets his name to the declaration, and undertakes to prove it, upon the penalty which may ensue thereon. Vide Co. Litt. 123 b, 287 b; 6 Burr. R. 2643, 2793; 2 W. Bl. R. 713; 1 B. & A. 405. Appeals of murder, as well as of treason, felony, or other offences, together with wager of battle, are abolished by stat. 59 Geo. M. c. 46.

APPEAL, practice. The act by which a party submits to the decision of a superior court, a cause which has been tried in an inferior tribunal. 1 S. & R. 78 Bin. 219; 3 Bin. 48.

2. The appeal generally annuls the judgment of the inferior court, so far that no action can be taken upon it until after the final decision of the cause. Its object is to review the whole case, and to secure a just judgment upon the merits.

3. An appeal differs from proceedings in error, under which the errors committed in the proceedings are examined, and if any have been committed the first judgment is reversed; because in the appeal the whole case is exainined and tried as if it had not been tried before. Vide Dane's Ab. h. t.; Serg. Const. Law Index, h. t. and article Courts of the United States.

APPEARANCE, practice. Signifies the filing common or special bail to the action.

2. The appearance, with all other subsequent pleadings supposed to take placein court, should (in accordance with the ancient practice) purport to be in term time. It is to be observed, however, that though the proceedings are expressed as if occurring in term time, yet, in fact, much of the business is now done, in periods of vacation.

3. The appearance of the parties is no longer (as formerly) by the actual presence in court, either by themselves or their attorneys; but, it must be remembered, an appearance of this kind is still supposed, and exists in contemplation of law. The appearance is effected on the part of the defendant (when be is not arrested) by making certain formal entries in the proper office of the court, expressing his appearance; 5 Watts & Serg. 215; 1 Scam. R. 250; 2 Seam. R. 462; 6 Port. R. 352; 9 Port. R. 272; 6 Miss. R. 50; 7 Miss. R. 411; 17 Verm. 531; 2 Pike, R. 26; 6 Ala. R. 784; 3 Watts & Serg. 501; 8 Port. R. 442; or, in case of arrest, it may be considered as effected by giving bail to the action. On the part of the plaintiff no formality expressive of appearance is observed.

4. In general, the appearance of either party may be in person or by attorney, and, when by attorney, there is always supposed to be a warrant of attorney executed to the attorney by his client, authorizing such appearance.

5. But to this general rule there are various exceptions; persons devoid of understanding, as idiots, and persons having understanding, if they are by law deprived of a capacity to appoint an attorney, as married women, must appear in person. The appearance of such persons must purport, and is so entered on the record, to be in person, whether in fact an attorney be employed or not. See Tidd's Pr. 68, 75; 1 Arch. Pract. 22; 2 John. 192; 8 John. 418; 14 John. 417; 5 Pick. 413; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

6. There must be an appearance in person in the following cases: 1st. An idiot can appear only in person, and as, a plaintiff he may sue in person or by his next friend 2d. A married woman, when sued without her hushand, should defend in person 3 Wms. Saund. 209, b and when the cause of action accrued before her marriage, and she is afterwards sued alone, she must plead her coverture in person, and not by attorney. Co. Litt. 125. 3d. When the party pleads to the jurisdiction, be must plead in person. Summ.on Pl. 51; Merrif. Law of Att. 58. 4th. A plea of misnomer must always be in person, unless it be by special warrant of attorney. 1 Chit. PI. 398; Summ. on PI. 50; 3 Wms. Saund. 209 b.

7. An infant cannot appoint an attorney; he must therefore prosecute or appear by guardian, or prochein ami.

8. A lunatic, if of full age, may appear by. attorney; if, under age, by guardian. 2 Wms. Saund. 335; Id. 332 (a) n. (4.)

9. When an appearance is lawfully entered by the defendant, both parties are considered as being in court. lmp. Pr. 215. And if the defendant pleads to issue, defects of process are cured but not, if he demurs to the process, (I Lord Raym. 21,) or, according to the practice of some courts, appears de bene esse, or otherwise conditionally.

10. In criminal cases, the personal presence of the accused is often necessary. It has been held, that if the record of a conviction of a misdemeaner be removed by certiorari, the personal presence of the defendant is necessary, in order to move in arrest. of judgment: but, after a special verdict, it is not necessary that the defendant should be personally present at the argument of it. 2 Burr. 931 1 Bl. Rep. 209, S. C. So, the defendant must appear personally in court, when an order of bastardy is quashed and the reason is, he must enter into a recognizance to abide the order of sessions below. 1 Bl. Rep. 198. So, in a case, when two justices of the peace, having confessed an information for mishehaviour in the execution of their office, and a motion was made to dispense with their personal appearance, on their clerks undertaking in court to answer for their flues, the court declared the rule to be, that although such a motion was subject to the discretion of the court either to grant or refuse it, in cases where it is clear that the punishment would not be corporal, yet it ought to be denied in every case where it is either probable or possible that the punishment would be corporal; and therefore the motion was overruled in that case. And Wilmot and Ashton, Justices, thought, that even where the punishment would most probably be pecuniary only, yet in offences of a very gross and public nature, the persons convicted should appear in person, for the sake of example and prevention of the like offences being committed by other persons; as the notoriety of being called up to answer criminally for such offences, would very much conduce to deter others from venturing to commit the like. 3 Burr. 1786, 7.

APPEARANCE DAY. The day on which the parties are bound to appear in court. This is regulated in the different states by particular provisions.

APPELLANT, practice. He who makes an appeal from one jurisdiction to another.

APPELLATE JURISDICTION. The jurisdiction which a superior court has to bear appeals of causes which have been tried in inferior courts. It differs from original jurisdiction, which is the power to entertain suits instituted in the first in stance. Vide Jurisdiction; Original jurisdiction.

APPELLEE, practice. The party in a cause against whom an appeal has been taken.

APPELLOR. A criminal who accuses his accomplices; one who challenges a jury.

APPENDANT. An incorporeal inheritance belonging to another inheritance.

2. By the word appendant in a deed, nothing can be conveyed which is itself substantial corporeal real property, and capable of passing by feoffment and livery of seisin: for one kind of corporeal real property cannot be appendant to another description of the like real property, it being a maxim that land cannot be appendant to land. Co. Litt. 121; 4 Coke, 86; 8 Barn. & Cr. 150; 6 Bing. 150. Only, such things can be appendant as can consistently be so, as a right of way, and the like. This distinction is of importance, as will be seen by the following case. If a wharf with the appurtenances be demised, and the water adjoining the wharf were in tended to pass, yet no distress for rent on the demised premises could be made on a barge on the water, because it is not a place which could pass as a part of the thing demised. 6 Bing. 150.

3. Appendant differs from appurtenant in this, that the former always arises from prescription, whereas an appurtenance may be created at any time. 1 Tho. Co. Litt. 206; Wood's Inst. 121; Dane's Abr. h. t.; 2 Vin. Ab. 594; Bac. Ab. Common, A 1. And things appendant must have belonged by prescription to another principal substantial thing, which is considered in law as more worthy. The principal thing and the appendant must be appropriate to each other in nature and quality, or such as may be properly used together. 1 Chit. Pr. 154.

APPENDITIA. From appendo, to hang at or on; the appendages or pertinances of an estate the appurtenauces to a dwelling, &c.; thus pent-houses, are the appenditia domus, &c.

 
 
 
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