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CIVIL. This word has various significations. 1. It is used in contradistinction to barbarous or savage, to indicate a state of society reduced to order and regular government; thus we speak of civil life, civil society, civil government, and civil liberty

2. It is sometimes used in contradistinction to criminal, to indicate the private rights and remedies of men, as members of the community, in contrast to those which are public and relate to the government; thus we speak of civil process and criminal process, civil jurisdiction and criminal jurisdiction.

3. It is also used in contradistinction to military or ecclesiastical, to natural or foreign; thus we speak of a civil station, as opposed to a military or ecclesiastical stationa civil death as opposed to a natural death; a civil warasopposed to a foreign war. Story on the Const. 789; 1 Bl. Coin. 6, 125, 251; Montesq. Sp. of Laws, B 1, c. 3; Ruth. Inst. B. 2, c. 2; Id. ch. 3Id. ch. 8, p. 359; Hein. Elem. Jurisp. Nat. B. 2, ch. 6.

CIVIL ACTION. In New York, actions are divided only into two kinds, namely, criminal and civil. A criminal action is prosecuted by the state, as a party, against a person charged with a public offence, for the punishment thereof. Every other action is a civil action. Code of Procedure, s. 4, 5, 6; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2638. In common parlance, however, writs of mandamus, certiorari, habeas corpus, &c., are not comprised by the expression, civil actions. 6 Bin. Rep. 9.

CIVIL COMMOTION. Lord Mansfield defines a civil commotion to be "an insurrection of the people for general purposes, though it may not amount to rebellion where there is an usurped power." 2 Marsh. lnsur. 793. In the printed proposals which are considered as making a part of the contract of insurance against fire, it is declared that the insurance company will not make good any loss happening by any civil commotion.

CIVIL DEATH, persons. The change of the state (q. v.) of a person who is declared civilly dead by judgment of a competent tribunal. In such case, the person against whom such sentence is pronounced is considered dead. 2 John. R. 218. See Gilb. Uses, 150; 2 Bulst. 188; Co. tit. 132; Jenk. Cent. 250; 1 Keble, 398; Prest. on Convey. 140. Vide Death, civil.

CIVIL LAW. The municipal code of the Romans is so called. It is a rule of action, adopted by mankind in a state of society. It denotes also the municipal law of the land. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 11. See Law, civil.

CIVIL LIST. The sum which is yearly paid by the state to its monarch, and the domains of which he is suffered to have the enjoyment.

CIVIL OBLIGATION, Civil law. One which binds in law, vinculum juris, and which may be enforeed in a court of justice. Poth. Obl. 173, and 191. See Obligation.

CIVIL OFFICER. The constitution of the United States, art. 2, s. 4, provides, that the president, vice-president, and civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. By this term areincluded all officers of the United States who hold their appointments under the national government, whether their duties are executive or judicial, in the highest or the lowest departments; of the government, with the exception of officers of the army and navy. Rawle on the Const. 213; 2 Story, Const. 790; a senator of the United States, it was decided, was not a civil officer, within the meaning of this clause in the constitution. Senate Journals, 10th January, 1799; 4 Tuck. Bl. Com. Appx. 57, 58; Rawle, Const. 213; Serg. on Const. Law, 376; Story, Const. 791.

CIVIL REMEDY, practice. This term is used in opposition to the remedy given by indictment in a criminal case, and signifies the remedy which the law gives to the party against the offender.

2. In cases of treason and felony, the law,, for wise purposes, suspends this remedy in order to promote the public interest, until the wrongdoer shall have been prosecuted for the public wrong. 1 Miles, Rep. 316-17; 12 East, 409; R. T. H. 359; 1 Hale's P. C. 546; 2 T. R. 751, 756; 17 Ves. 329; 4 Bl. Com. 363; Bac. Ab. Trepass, E 2; and Trover, D. This principle has been adopted in New Hampshire N. H. R. 239; but changed in New York by statutory provision; 2 Rev. Stat. 292, 2 and by decisions in Massachusetts, except perhaps in felonies punishable with death; 15 Mass. R. 333; in Ohio; 4 Ohio R. 377; in North Carolina; 1 Tayl. R. 58. By the common law, in cases of homicide, the civil remedy is merged in the felony. 1 Chit. Pr. 10. Vide art. Injuries; Merger.

CIVIL STATE. The union of individual men in civil society under a system of laws and a magistracy, or magistracies, charged with the administration of the laws. It is a fundamental law of the civil state, that no member of it shall undertake to redress or avenge any violation of his rights, by another person, but appeal to the constituted authorities for that purpose, in all cases in which is is possible for him to do so. Hence the citizens are justly considered as being under the safeguard of the law. 1 Toull. n. 201. Vide Self-defence.

CIVILIAN. A doctor, professor, or student of the civil law.

CIVILITER. Civilly; opposed to criminaliter or criminally.

2. When a person does an unlawful act injurious to another, whether with or without an intention to commit a tort, he is responsible civiliter. In order to make him liable criminaliter, he must have intended to do the wrong; for it is a maxim, actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea. 2 East, 104.

CIVILITER MORTUUS. Civilly dead; one who is considered as if he were naturally dead, go far as his rights are concerned.

CLAIM. A claim is a challenge of the ownership of a thing which a man has not in possession, and is wrongfully withheld by another. Plowd. 359; Wee i Dall.444; 12 S. & R. 179.

2. In Pennsylvania, the entry on of the demand of a mechanic or materialman for work done or material furnished in the erection of a building, in those counties to which the lien laws extend, is called a claim.

3. A continual c1aim is a claim made in a particular way, to preserve the' rights of a feoffee. See Continual claim.

4. Claim of conusance is defined to be an intervention by a third person, demanding jurisdiction of a cause against a plaintiff, who has chosen to commence his action out of the claimant's court. 2 Wils. 409; 1 Cit. Pb. 403; Vin. Ab. Conusance; Com. Dig. Courts, P; Bac. Ab. Courts, D 3; 3 Bl. Com. 298.

CLAIMANT. In the courts of admiralty, when the suit is in rem, the cause is entitled in the Dame of the libellant against the thing libelled, as A B v. Ten cases of calico and it preserves that title through the whole progress of the suit.When a person is authorized and admitted to defend the libel, he is called the claimant. The United States v. 1960 bags of coffee; 8 Cranch, R. 398; United States v. The Mars; 8 Cranch, R. 417; 30 hhds. of sugar, (Brentzon, claimant, v. Boyle. 9 Cranch, R. 191.

CLANDESTINE. That which is done in secret and contrary to law.

2.Generally a clandestine act in case of the limitation of actions will prevent the act from running. A clandestine marriage is one which has been contracted without the form which the law has prescribed for this important contract. Alis. Princ. 543

CLARENDON. The constitutions of Clarendon were certain statutes made in the reign of Henry H., of England, in a parliament holden at Clarendon, by which the king cheeked the power of the pope and his clergy. 4 Bl. Com. 415.

CLASS. The order according to which are arranged or distributed, or are supposed to be arranged or distributed, divers persons or things; thus we say, a class of legatees.

2. When a legacy is given to a class of individuals, all who answer the description at the time the will takes effect, are entitled; and though the expression be in the plural, yet if there be but one, he shall take the whole. 3 M'Cord, Ch. R. 440.

3. When a bond is given to a class of persons, it is good, and all composing that class are entitled to sue upon it; but if the obligor be a member of such class, the bond is void, because a man cannot be obligor and obligee at the same-time; as, if a bond be given to the justices of the county court, and at the time the obligor is himself one of said justices. 3 Dev. 284, 287,289; 4 Dev. 882.

4. When a charge is made against a class of society, a profession, an order or body of men, and cannot possibly import a personal application to private injury, no action lies; but if any one of the class have sustained special damages inconsequence of such charge, he may maintain an action. 17 Wend. 52, 23, 186. See 12 John. 475. When the charge is against one of a class, without designating which, no action lies; as, where three persons had been examined as witnesses, and the defendant said in addressing himself to them, " one of you three is perjured." 1 Roll. Ab. 81; Cro. Jac. 107; 16 Pick. 132.

CLAUSE, contracts. A particular disposition which makes part of a treaty; of an act of the legislature; of a deed, written agreement, or other written contract or will. When a clause is obscurely written, it ought to be construed in such a way as to agree with what precedes and what follows, if possible. Vide Dig. 50, 17, 77; Construction; Interpretation.

CLAUSUM FREGIT, torts, remedies. He broke the close. These words are used in a writ for an action of trespass to real estate, the defendant being summonedto answer quare clausum fregit, that is, why he broke the close of the plaintiff. 3 Bl. Com. 209.

2. Trespass quare clausum fregit lies for every unlawful intrusion into land, whether enclosed or not, though only grass may be trodden. 1 Dev. & Bat. 371. And to maintain this action there must be a possession in the plaintiff, and a right to that possession.9 Cowen 39; 4 Yeates, 418; 11 Conn. 60, 10 Conn. 225; 1 John. 511; 12 John. 1834 Watts, 377; 4 Bibb, 218; 15 Pick. 32; 6 Rand. 556; 2 Yeates, 210; 1 Har. & John. 295; 8 Mass. 411.

CLEARANCE, com. law. The name of a certificate given by the collector of a port, in which is stated the master or commander (naming him) of a ship or vessel named and described, bound for a port, named, and having on board goods described, has entered and cleared his ship or vessel according to law.

2. The Act of Congress of 2d March, 1790, section 93, directs, that the master of any vessel bound to a foreign place, shall deliver to the collector of the dis ot from which such vessel shall be about to depart, a manifest of all the cargo on board, and the value thereof, by him subscribed, and shall swear or affirm to the truth thereof; whereupon the collector shall grant a clearance for such vessel and her cargo; but without specifying the particulars thereof in such clearance, unless required by the master so to do. And if any vessel bound to any foreign place shall depart on her voyage to such foreign place, without delivering such a manifest and obtaining a clearance, the master shall forfeit and pay the sum of five hundred dollars for every such offence. Provided, anything to the contrary notwithstanding, the collectors and other officers of the customs shall pay due regard to the inspection laws of the states in which they respectively act, in such manner, that no vessel having on board goods liable to inspection, shall be cleared out, until the master or other person shall have produced such certificate, that all such goods have been duly inspected, as the laws of the respective states do or may require, to be produced to the collector or other officer of the customs. And provided, that receipts for the payment of all legal fees which shall have accrued on any vessel, shall, before any clearance is granted, be produced to the collector or other officer aforesaid .

3. According to Boulay-Paty, Dr. Com. tome 2, p. 19, the clearance is imperiously demanded for the safety of the vessel; for if a vessel should be found without it at sea, it may be legally taken and brought into some port for adjudication, on a charge of priacy. Vide Ship's papers.

CLEARING HOUSE, com. law. Among the English bankers, the clearing house is a place in Lombard street, in London, where the bankers of that city daily settle with each other the balances which they owe, or to which they are entitled. Desks are placed around the room, one of which is appropriated to each bankiug house, and they are: occupied in alphabetical order. Each clerk has a box or drawer along side of him, and the name of the house he represents is inscribed over his head. A clerk of each house comes in about half-past three o'clock in the afternoon, and brings the drafts or cheeks on the other bankers, which have been paid by his house that day, and deposits thein in their proper drawers. The clerk at the desk credits their accounts separately which they have against him, as found in the drawer. Balances are thus struck from all the accounts, and the claims transferred from one to another, until they are so wound up and cancelled, that each clerk has only to settle with two or three others, and the balances are immediately paid. When drafts are paid at so late an hour that they cannot be cleared that day, they are sent to the houses on which they are drawn, to be marked, that is, a memorandum is made on them, and they are to be cleared the next day. See Gilbert's Practical Treatise on Banking, pp. 16-20, Babbage on the Economy of Machines, n. 173, 174; Kelly's Cambist; Byles, on Bills, 106, 110; Pulling's Laws and Customs of London, 437.

CLEMENCY. The disposition to treat with leniency. See Mercy; Pardon.

CLEMENTINES, eccl. law. The name usually given to the collection of decretals or constitutious of Pope Clement V., which was made by order of John XXII. his successor, who published it in 1317. The death of Clement V., which happened in 1314, prevented him from publishing this collection, which is properly a compilation, as well of the epistles and constitutions of this pope, as of the decrees of the council of Vienna, over which he presided. The Clementines are divided in five books, in which the matter is distributed nearly upon the same plan as the Decretals of Gregory IX. VideLa Bibliotheque des auteurs ecclesiastiques, par Dupin.

CLERGY. All who are attached to the ecclesiastical ministry are called the clergy; a clergyman is therefore an ecclesiastical minister.

2. Clergymen were exempted by the emperor Constantine from all civil burdens. Baronius ad ann. 319, 30. Lord Coke says, 2 Inst. 3, ecclesiastical persons have more and greater liberties than other of the king's subjects, wherein to set down all, would take up a whole volume of itself.

3. In the United States the clergy is not established by law, but each congregation or church may choose its own clergyman.

CLERICAL ERROR. An error made by a clerk in transcribing or otherwise. This is always readily corrected by the court. 2. An error, for example, in the teste of a fi. fa.; 4 Yeates, 185, 205; or in the teste and return of a vend. exp.; 1 Dall. 197 or in writing Dowell forMcDowell. 1 Serg. & R. 120; 8 Rep. 162 a; 9 Serg. & R. 284, 5. An error is amendable where there is something to amend by, and this even in a criminal case. 2 Bin. 5-16; 5 Burr. 2667; 1 Bin. 367-9; Dougl. 377; Cowp. 408. For the party ought not to be harmed by the omission of the clerk; 3 Bin. 102; even of his signature, if he affixes the seal. 1 Serg. & R. 97.

CLERK, commerce, contract. A person in the employ of a merchant, who attends only to a part of his business, while the merchant himself superintends the whole. He differs from a factor in this, that the latter wholly supplies the place of his principal in respect to the property consigned to him. Pard. Dr. Com. n. 38, 1 Chit. Pract. 80; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1287.

CLERK, officer. A person employed in an office, public or private, for keeping records or accounts. His business is to write or register, in proper form, the transactions of the tribunal or body to which he belongs. Some clerks, however, have little or no writing to do in their offices, as, the clerk of the market, whose duties are confined chiefly to superintending the markets. In the English law, clerk also signifies a clergyman.

CLERK, eccl. law. Every individual, who is attached to the ecclesiastical state, and who has submitted to the ceremony of the tonsure, is a clerk.

CLIENT, practice. One who employs and retains an attorney or counsellor to manage or defend a suit or action in which he is a party, or to advise him about some legal matters.

2. The duties of the client towards his counsel are, 1st. to give him a written authority, 1 Ch. Pr. l9; 2. to disclose his case with perfect candor3. to offer spontaneously, advances of money to his attorney; 2 Ch. Pr. 27; 4. he should, at the end of the suit, promptly pay his attorney his fees. Ib. His rights are, 1. to be diligently served in the management of his business 2. to be informed of its progress and, 3. that his counsel shall not disclose what has been professionally confided to him. See Attorney at law; Confidential communication.

CLOSE. Signifies the interest in the soil, and not merely a close or enclosure in the common acceptation of the term. Doct. & Stud. 307 East, 207 2 Stra. 1004; 6 East, 1541 Burr. 133 1 Ch. R. 160.

2. In every case where one man has a right to exclude another from his land, the law encircles it, if not already enclosed, with an imaginary fence; and entitles him to a compensation in damages for the injury he sustains by the act of another passing through his boundary, denominating the injurious act a breach of the enclosure. Hamm. N. P. 151; Doct. & Stud. dial. 1, c. 8, p. 30; 2 Whart. 430.

3. An ejectment will not lie for a close. 11 Rep. 55; 1 Rolle's R. 55 Salk. 254 Cro. Eliz. 235; Adams on Eject. 24.

CLOSE ROLLS, or close writs, Eng. law. Writs containing, grants from the crown, to particular persons, and for particular purposes, and, not being intended for public inspection, are closed up and sealed on the outside, and for that reason called close writs ,in contradistinction. to grants relating to the public in general, which are left open and not sealed up, and are called letters patent. (q. v.) 2 Bl. Com. 346.

CLOSED DOORS. Signifies that something is done privately. The senate sits with closed doors on executive business.

2. In general the legislative business of the country is transacted openly. And the constitution and laws require that courts of justice shall be open to the public.

CLUB. An association of persons.It differs from a partnersbip in this, that the members of a club have no authority to bind each other further than they are authorized, either expressly or by implication, as each other's agents in the particular transaction; whereas in trading associations, or common partnerships, one partner may bind his co-partners, as each has a right of property in the whole. 2 Mees. & Welsb. 172; Colly, Partn. 31; Story, Partn. 144; Wordsworth on Joint Stock Companies, 154, et seq.; 6 W. & S. 67; 3, W. & S. 118.

CO. A prefix or particle in the nature of an inseparable proposition, signifying with or in conjunction. Con and the Latin cum are equivalent, as, co-executors, co-obligor. It is also used as an abbreviation for company as, John Smith & Co.

COADJUTOR, eccl. law. A fellow helper or assistant; particularly applied to the assistant of a bishop.

COAL NOTE, Eng. law. A species of promissory note authorized by the st. 3 Geo. H., c. 26, SSSS 7 and 8, which, having these words expressed therein, namely, " value received in coals," are to be protected and noted as inland bills of exchange.

COALITION, French law. By this word is understood an unlawful agreement among several persons, not to do a thing except on some conditions agreed upon.

2. The most usual coalitions are, 1st. those which take place among master workmen, to reduce, diminish or fix at a low rate the wages of journeymen and other workmen; 2d. those among workmen or journeymen, not to work except at a certain price. These offences are punished by fine and imprisonment. Dict. de Police, h. t. In our law this offence is known by the name of conspiracy. (q. v.)

CO-ADMINISTRATOR. One of several administrators. In general, they have, like executors, the power to act singly to the personal estate of the intestate. Vide Administrator.

CO-ASSIGNEE. One who is assignee with another.

2. In general, the rights and duties of co-assignees are equal.

CO-EXECUTOR. One who is executor of a will in company with another. In general each co-executor has the full power over the personal estate of the testator, that all the executors have jointly. Vide Joint Executors. But one cannot bring suit without joining with the others.

COAST. The margin of a country bounded by the sea. This term includes the natural appendages of the territory which rise out of the water, although they are not of sufficient firmness to be inhabited or fortified. Shoals perpetually covered with water are not, however, comprehended under the name of coast. The small islands, situate at the mouth of the Mississippi, composed of earth and trees drifted down by the river, which are not of consistency enough to support the purposes of life, and are uninhabited, though resorted to for shooting birds, were held to form a part of the coast. 5 Rob. Adm. R. 385. (c).

COCKET, commerce. In England the office at the custom house, where the goods to be exported are entered, is so called, also the custom house seal, or the parchment sealed and delivered by the officers of customs to merchants, as a warrant that their goods are customed. Crabbe's Tech. Dict.

COCKETTUM, commerce. In the English law this word signifies, 1. the custom- house seal; 2. the office at the custom where cockers are to be procured. Crabbe's Tech. Dict.

CODE, legislation. Signifies in general a collection of laws. It is a name given by way of eminence to a collection of such laws made by the legislature. Among the most noted may be mentioned the following:

CODES, Les Cing Codes; French law. The five codes.

2. These codes are, 1st. Code Civil, which is divided into three books; book 1, treats of persons, and of the enjoyment and privation of civil rights; book 2, of property and its different modifications; book 3, of the different ways of acquiring property. One of the most perspicuous and able, commentators on this code is Toullier, frequently citedin this work.

3. - 2d. Code de procedure civille, which is divided into two parts. Part 1, is divided into five books; 1. of justices of the. peace; 2. of inferior tribunals; 3. of royal courts; 4. of extraordinary means of proceeding; 5. of execution and judgment. Part 2, is divided into three books; 1. of tender and consignation; 2. of process in relation to the opening of a succession; 3. of arbitration.

4. - 3d. Code de Commerce, in four books; 1. of commerce in general; 2. of maritime comraerce; 3. of failures and bankruptcy; 4. of commercial jurisdiction. Pardessus is one of the ablest commentators on this code.

5. - 4th. Code d'Instructions Criminelle, in two books; 1. of judiciary police, and its officers; 2. of the administration of justice.

6.-5th. Code Penal, in four books; 1. of punishment in criminal and correctional cases, and their effects; 2. of the persons punishable, excusable or responsible, for their crimes or misdemeanors; 3. of crimes, misdemeanors, (delits,) and their punishment; 4. of contraventions of police, and their punishment. For the history of these codes, vide Merl. Rep. h. t.; Motifs, Rapports, Opinions et Discours sur les Codes; Encyclop. Amer. h. t.

7. Henrion de Pansey, late a president of the Court of Cassation, remarks in reference to these codes: "In the midst of the innovations of these later times, a system of uniformity has suddenly engrossed all minds, and we have had imposed upon us the same weights, the same measures, the same laws, civil, criminal, rural and commercial. These new codes, like everything which comes from the hand of man, have imperfections and obscurities. The administration of them is committed to nearly thirty sovereign courts and a multitude of petty tribunals, composed of only three judges, and yet are invested with the right of determining in the last resort, under many circumstances. Each tribunal, the natural interpreter of these laws, applies them according to its own view, and the new codes were scarcely in operation before this beautiful system of uniformity became nothing more than a vain theory. Authorite Judiciaire, c. 31, s. 10.

CODE HENRI. A digest of the laws of Hayti, enacted by Henri, king of Hayti. It is based upon the Code Napoleon, but not servilely copied. It is said to be judiciously adapted to the situation of Hayti. A collection of laws made by order of Henry III of France, is also known by the name of Code Henri.

CODE, JUSTINIAN, civil law. A collection of the constitutions of the emperors, from Adrian to Justinian; the greater part of those from Adrian to Constantine are mere rescripts; those from Constantine to Justinian are edicts or laws, properly speaking.

2. The code is divided into twelve books, which are subdivided into titles, in which the constitutions are collected under proper heads. They are placed in chronological order, but often disjointed. At the head of each constitution is placed the name of the emperor who is the author, and that of the person to whom it is addressed. The date is at the end. Several of these constitutions, which were formerly in the code were lost, it is supposed by the neglect of "copyists. Some of them have been restored by modern authors, among whom may be mentioned Charondas, Cugas, and Contius, who translated them from Greek, versions.

CODE, OF LOUISIANA. In 1822, Peter Derbigny, Edward Livingston, and Moreau Lislet, were selected by the legislature to revise and amend the civil code, and to add to it sucb laws still in force as were not included therein. They were authorized to add a system of commercial law, and a code of practice. The code they prepared having been adopted, was promulgated in 1824, under the title of the " Civil Code of the State of Louisiana."

2. The code is based on the Code Napoleon, with proper and judicious modifications, suitable for the state of Louisiana. It is composed of three books: 1. the first treats of persons; 2. the second of tbings, and of the different modifications of property; 3. and the third of the different modes of acquiring the property of tbings. It contains 3522 articles, numbered from the beginning, for the convenience of reference.

3. This code, it is said, contains many inaccurate definitions. The legislature modified and changed many of the provisions relating to the positive legislation, but adopted the definitions and abstract doctrines of the code without material alterations. From this circumstance, as well as from the inherent difficulty of the subject, the positive provisions of the code are often at variance with the theoretical part, which was intended to elucidate them. 13 L. R. 237.

4. This code went into operation on the 20th day of May,. 1825. 11 L. R. 60. It is in both the French and English languages; and in construing it, it is a rule that when the expressions used in the French text of the code are more comprehensive than those used in English, or vice versa, the more enlarged sense will be taken, as thus full effect will be given to both clauses. 2 N. S. 582.

CODE, NAPOLEON. The Code Civil of France, enacted into law during the reign of Napoleon, bore his name until the restoration of the Bourbons when it was deprived of that name, and it is now cited Code Civil.

CODE PAPIRIAN. The name of a collection of the Roman laws, promulgated by Romulus, Numa, and other kings who governed. Rome till the time of Tarquin, the Proud. It was so called in honor if Sextus Parrius, the compiler. Dig. 1, 2, 2.

CODE PRUSSIAN. Allgemeines Landrecht. This code is also known by the name of Codex Fredericianus, or Frederician code. It was compiled by order of Frederic H., by the minister of justice, Samuel V. Cocceji, who completed, a part of it before his death, in 1755. In 1780, the work was renewed under the superintendence of the minister Von Carmer, and prosecuted with unceasing activity and was published from 1784 to 1788, in six parts. The opinions of those who understood the subject were requested, and prizes offered on the best commentaries on it; and the whole was completed in June, 1791, under the title " General Prussian Code."

CODE THEODOSIAN. This code, which originated in the eastern empire, was adopted in the Western empire towards its decline. It is a collection of the legislation of the Christian emperors, from and including Constantine to Theodosius, the Younger; it is composed of sixteen books, the edicts, acts, rescripts, and ordinances of the two empires, that of the east and that of the west.

CO-DEFENDANT. One who is made defendant in an action with another person.

CODEX. Literally, a volume or roll. It is particularly applied to the volume of the civil law, collected by the emperor Justinian, from all pleas and answers of the ancient lawyers, which were in loose scrolls or sheets of parchment. These he compiled into a book which goes by the name of Codex.

CODICIL, devises. An addition or supplement to a will; it must be executed with the same solemnities. A codicil is a part of the will, the two instruments making but one will. 4 Bro. C. C. 55; 2 Ves. sen. 242 4 Ves. 610; 2 Ridgw. Irish P. C. 11, 43.

2. There may be several codicils to one will, and the whole will be taken as one: the codicil does not, consequently, revoke the will further than it is in opposition to some of its particular dispositions, unless there be express words of revocation. 8 Cowen, Rep. 56.,

3. Formerly, the difference between a will and a codicil consisted in this, that in the former an executor was named, while in the latter none was appointed. Swinb. part 1, s. 5, pl. 2; Godolph. Leg. part 1, c. 6, s. 2. This is the distinction of the civil law, and adopted by the canon law. Vide Williams on Wills, ch. 2; Rob. on Wills, 154, n. 388, 476; Lovelass on Wills, 185, 289 4 Kent, Com. 516; 1 Ves. jr. 407, 497; 3 Ves. jr. 110; 4 Ves. jr. 610; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 116, 140.

4. Codicils were chiefly intended to mitigate the strictness of the ancient Roman law, which required that a will should be attested by seven Roman citizens, omni exceptione majores. A legacy could be bequeathed, but the heir could not be appointed by codicil, though he might be made heir indirectly by way of fidei commissum.

5. Codicils owe their origin to the following circumstances. Lucius Lentulus, dying in Africa, left. codicils, confirmed by anticipation in a will of former date, and in those codicils requested the emperor Augustus, by way of fidei commissum, or trust, to do something therein expressed. The emperor carried this will into effect, and the daughter of Lentulus paid legacies which she would not otherwise have been legally bound to pay. Other persons made similar fidei-commissa, and then the emperor, by the advice of learned men whom he consulted, sanctioned the making of codicils, and thus they became clothed with legal authority. Just. 2, 25; Bowy. Com. 155, 156.

6. The form of devising by codicil is abolished in Louisiana; Code, 1563; and whether the disposition of the property be made by testament, under this title, or under that of institution of heir, of legacy, codicil, donation mortis causa, or under any other name indicating the last will, provided it be clothed with the forms required for the validity of a testament, it is, as far as form is concerned, to be considered a testament. Ib. Vide 1 Brown's Civil Law, 292; Domat, Lois Civ. liv. 4, t. 1, s. 1; Lecons Element, du Dr. Civ. Rom. tit. 25.

COERCION, criminal law, contracts. Constraint; compulsion; force.

2. It is positive or presumed. 1. Positive or direct coercion takes place when a man is by physical force compelled to do an act contrary to his will; for example, when a man falls into the hands of the enemies of his country, and they compel him, by a just fear of death, to fight against it.

3. - 2. It is presumed where a person is legally under subjection to another, and is induced, in consequence of such subjection, to do an act contrary to his win. A married woman, for example, is legally under the subjection of her husband, and if in his company she commit a crime or offence, not malum in se, (except the offence of keeping a bawdy-house, In which case she is considered by the policy of the law as a principal, she is presumed to act under this coercion.

4. As will (q. v.) is necessary to the commission of a crime, or the making of a contract, a person coerced into either, has no will on the, subject, and is not responsible. Vide Roscoe's Cr. Ev. 7 85, and the cases there cited; 2 Stark. Ev. 705, as to what will, amount to coercion in criminal cases.

CO-EXECUTOR. One who is executor with another.

2. In general, the rights and duties of co-executors are equal.

COGNATION, civil law. Signifies generally the kindred which exists between two persons who are united by ties of blood or family, or both.

2. Cognation is of -three kinds: natural, civil, or mixed. Natural cognation is that which is alone formed by ties of blood; such is the kindred of those who owe their origin to an illicit connexion, either in relation to their ascendants or collaterals.

3. Civil cognation is that which proceeds alone from the ties of families as the kindred between the adopted father and the adopted child.

4. Mixed cognation is that which unites at the same time the ties of blood and family, as that which exists between brothers, the issue of the same lawful marriage. 6; Dig. 38, 10.

COGNATI, cognates. This term occurs frequently in the Roman civil law, and denotes collateral heirs through females. It is not used in the civil law as it now prevails in France. In the common law it has no technical sense, but as a word of discourse in English it signifies, generally, allied by blood, related in origin, of the same family. See Vicat, ad verb.; also, Biret's Vocabulaire.

COGNISANCE, pleading. Where the defendant in an action of replevin (not being entitled to the distress or goods which are the subject of the replevin) acknowledges the taking of the distress, and insists that such taking was legal, not because he himself had a right to distrain on his own account, but because he made the distress by the command of another, who had a right to distrain on the goods which are the subject of the suit. Lawes on Pl. 35, 36; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3571.

COGNISANCE, practice. Sometimes signifies jurisdiction and juudicial power, an sometimes the hearing of a matter judicially. It is a term used in the acknowledgment of a fine. See Vaughan's Rep. 207.

COGNISANCE OF PLEAS, Eng. law. A privilege granted by the king to a city or town, to hold pleas within the same; and when any one is impleaded in the courts at Westminster, the owner of the franchise may demand cognisance of the plea. T. de la Ley.

COGNISEE. He to whom a fine of lands, &c. is acknowledged. See Cognisor.

COGNISOR, English law. One who passes or acknowledges,a fine of lands or tenements to another, in distinction from the cogzisee, to whom the fine of the lands, &c. is acknowledged.

COGNITIONIBUS ADMITTENDIS, English law, practice. A writ to a justice ,or other person, who has power to take a fine, and having taken the acknowledgment of a fine, delays to certify it in the court of common pleas, requiring him to do it. Crabbe's Tech. Dict.

COGNOMEN. A Latin word, which signifies a family name. The praenomen among the Romans distinguished the person, the nomen, the gens, or all the kindred descended from a remote common stock through males, while the cognomen denoted the particular family. The agnomen was added on account of some particular event, as a further distinction. Thus, in the designation Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Publius is the proenomen, Cornelius is the nomen, Scipio the cognomen, and Africanus the agnomen. Vicat. These several terms occur frequently in the Roman laws. See Cas. temp. Hardw. 286; 1 Tayl. 148. See Name; Surname.

COGNOVIT, contr. leading. A written confession of an action by a defendant, subscribed but not sealed, and authorizing the plaintiff to sign judgment and issue execution, usually for a sum named.

2. It is given after the action is brought to save expense.

3. It differs from a warrant of attorney, which is given before the commencement of any action, and is under seal. A cognovit actionem is an acknowledgment and confession of the plaintiff's cause of action against the defendant to be just and true. Vide 3 Ch. Pr. 664; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 8299.

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