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COMMUNITY. This word has several meanings; when used in common parlance it signifies the body of the people.

2. In the civil law, by community is understood corporations, or bodies politic. Dig. 3, 4.

3. In the French law, which has been adopted in this respect in Louisiana, Civ. Code, art. 2371, community is a species of partnership, which a man and woman contract when they are lawfully married to each other. It consists of the profits of all, the effects of which the husband has the administration and enjoyment, either of right or in fact; of the produce of the reciprocal industry and labor of both husband and wife, and of the estates which they may acquire during the marriage, either by donations made jointly to them, or by purchase, or in any other similar way, even although the purchase he made in the name of one of the two, and not of both; because in that case the period of time when the purchase is made is alone attended to, and not the person who made the purchase. 10 L. R. 146; Id. 172, 181; 1 N. S. 325; 4 N. S. 212. The debts contracted during the marriage enter into the community, and must be acquitted out of the common fund; but not the debts contracted before the marriage.

4. The community is either, first, conventional, or that which is formed by an express agreement in the contract of marriage itself; by this contract the legal community may be modified, as to the proportions which each shall take, or as to the things which shall compose it; Civ. Code of L. art. 2393; second, legal, which takes place when the parties make no agreement on this subject in the contract of marriage; when it is regulated by the law of the domicil they had at the time of marriage.

5. The effects which compose the community of gains, are divided *into two equal portions between the heirs, at the dissolution of the marriage. Civ. Code of L. art. 2375. See Poth. h. t.; Toull. h. t.; Civ. Code of Lo. tit. 6, c. 2, s. 4.

6. In another sense, community is the right which all men have, according to the laws of nature, to use all things. Wolff, Inst. 186.

COMMUTATION, punishments. The change of a punishment to which a person has been condemned into a less severe one. This can be granted only by the executive authority in which the pardoning power resides.

COMMUTATIVE CONTRACT, civil law. One in which each of the contracting parties gives and, receives an equivalent. The contract of sale is of this kind. The seller gives the thing sold, and receives the price, which is the equivalent. The buyer gives the price and receives the thing sold, which is the equivalent.

2. These contracts are usually distributed into four classes, namely; Do ut des; Facio ut facias; Facio ut des; Do ut facias. Poth. Obl. n. 13. See' Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1761.

COMMUTATIVE JUSTICE. That virtue whose object is, to render to every one what belongs to him, as nearly as may be, or that which governs contracts.

2. The word commutative is derived from commutare, which signifies to exchange. Lepage, El. du Dr. ch. 1, art. 3, 3. See Justice.

TO COMMUTE. To substitute one punishment in the place of another. For example, if a man be sentenced to be hung, the executive may, in some states, commute his punishment to that of imprisonment.

COMPACT, contracts. In its more general sense, it signifies an agreement. In its strict sense, it imports a contract between parties, which creates obligations and rights capable of being enforeed, and contemplated as such between the parties, in their distinct and independent characters. Story, Const. B. 3, c. 3; Rutherf. Inst. B. 2, c. 6, 1. 2. The constitution of the United States declares that " no state shall, without the consent of congress, enter into agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power." See 11 Pet: 1; 8 Wheat. 1 Bald. R. 60; 11 Pet. 185.

COMPANION, dom. rel. By 5 Edw. III., st. 5, c. 2, 1, it is declared to be high treason in any one who " doth compass or imagine the death of our lord the king, or our lady his companion," &c. See 2 Inst. 8, 9; 1 H. H. P. C. 124.

COMPANIONS, French law. This is a general term, comprehending all persons who compose the crew of a ship or vessel. Poth. Mar. Contr. n. 163.

COMPANY. An association of a number of individuals for the purpose of carrying on some legitimate business.

2. This term is not synonymous with partnership, though every such unincorporated compass is a partnership.

3. Usage has reserved this term to associations whose members are in greater number, their capital more considerable, and their enterprizes greater, either on account of their risk or importance.

4. When these companies are authorized by the government, they are known by the name of corporations. (q. v.)

5. Sometimes the word is used to represent those members of a partnership whose names do not appear in the name of the firm; as, A.B & Company. Vide, 12 Toull. n, 97; Mortimer on Commerce, 128. Vide Club; Corporation; Firm; Parties to actions; Partnership.

COMPARISON OF HANDWRITING, evidence. It is a general rule that comparison of hands is not admissible; but to this there are some exceptions. In some instances, when the antiquity of the writing makes it impossible for any living witness to swear that he ever saw the party write, comparison of handwriting, with documents known to be in his handwriting, has been admitted. For the general principle, see Skin. 579, 639; 6 Mod. 167; 1 Lord Ray. 39, 40; Holt. 291; 4 T. R. 497; 1 Esp. N. P. C. 14, 351; Peake's Evid. 69; 7 East, R. 282; B. N. P. 236; Anthon's N. P. 98, n.; 8 Price, 653; 11 Mass. R. 309 2 Greenl. R. 33 2 Johns. Cas. 211 1 Esp. 351; 1 Root, 307; Swift's Ev. 29; 1 Whart. Dig 245; 5 Binn. R. 349; Addison's R. 33; 2 M'Cord, 518; 1 Tyler, R. 4 6 Whart. R. 284; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3129-30. Vide Diploma.

TO COMPASS. To imagine; to contrive.

2. In England, to compass the death of the king is high treason. Bract. 1. 3, c. 2 Britt. c. 8; Mirror, c. 1, s. 4.

COMPATIBILITY. In speaking of public offices it is meant by this term to convey the idea that two of them may be held by the same person at the same time. It is the opposite of incompatibility. (q. v.)

COMPENSATIO CRIMINIS. The compensation or set-off of one crime against another; for example, in questions of divorce, where one party claims the divorce on the ground of adultery of his or her companion, the latter may show that the complainant has been guilty of the same offence, and having himself violated the contract, he cannot complain of its violation on the other side. This principle is incorporated in the codes of most civilized nations. 1 Ought. Ord. per tit. 214; 1 Hagg. Consist. R. 144; 1 Hagg. Eccl. R. 714; 2 Paige, 108; 2 Dev. & Batt. 64. See Condonation.

COMPENSATION, chancery practice. The performance of tbat which a court of chancery orders to be done on relieving a party who has broken a condition, which is to place the opposite party in no worse situation than if the condition had not been broken.

2. Courts of equity will not relieve from the consequences of a broken condition, unless compensation can be made to the opposite party. Fonb. c. 6; s. 51 n. (k) Newl. Contr: 251, et. seq.

3. When a simple mistake, not a fraud, affects a contract, but does not change its essence, a court of equity will enforce it, upon making compensation for the error, The principle upon wbich courts of equity act," says Lord Chancellor Eldon, "is by all the authorities brought to the true standard, that though the party had not a title at law, because he had not strictly complied with the terms so as to entitle him to an action, (as to time for instance,) yet if the time, though introduced, as some time must be fixed, where something is to be done on one side, as a consideration for something to be done on the other, is not the essence of the contract; a material object, to which they looked in the first conception of it, even though the lapse of time has not arisen from accident, a court of equity will compel the execution of the contract upon this ground, that one party is ready to perform, and that the other ma, have performance in substance if he will permit it." 13 Ves. 287. See 10 Ves. 505; 13 Ves. 73, 81, 426; 6 Ves. 675; 1 Cox, 59.

COMPENSATION, contracts. A reward for services rendered.

COMPENSATION, contracts, civil law. When two persons are equally indebted to each other, there takes place a compensation between them, which extinguishes both debts. Compensation is, therefore, a reciprocal liberation between two persons who are creditors and debtors to each other, which liberation takes place instead of payment, and prevents a circuity. Or it may be more briefly defined as follows; compensatio est debiti et crediti intter se contributio.

2. Compeasation takes places, of course, by the more operation of law, even unknown to the debtors the two debts are reciprocally extinguished, as soon as they exist simultaneously, to the, amount of their respective sums. Compensation takes place only between two debts, having equally for their object a sum of money, or a certain quantity of consumable things of one and the same kind, and which are equally liquidated and demandable. Compensation takes place, whatever be the cause of either of the debts, except in case, 1st. of a demand of restitution of a tbing of which the owner has been unjustly deprived; 2d. of a demand of restitution of a deposit and a loan for use; 3d. of a debt which has for its cause, aliments declared not liable to seizure. Civil Code of. Louis. 2203 to 2208. Compensation is of three kinds: 1. legal or by operation of law; 2. compensation by way of exception; and, 3. by reconvention. 8 L. R. 158; Dig. lib. 16, t. 2; Code, lib. 4, t. 31; Inst. lib. 4, t' 6, s. 30; Poth. Obl. partie. 3eme, ch. 4eme, n. 623; Burge on Sur., Book 2, c. 6, p. 181.

3. Compensation very nearly resembles the set-off (q. v.) of the common law. The principal difference is this, that a set-off, to have any effect, must be pleaded; whereas compensation is effectual without any such plea, only the balance is a debt. .2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1407.

COMPENSATION, crim. law; Compeusatio crimiuura, or recrimination (q. v.)

2. In cases of suits for divorce on the ground of adultery, a compensation of the crime hinders its being granted; that is, if the defendant proves that the party has also committed adultery, the defendant is absolved as to the matters charged in the libel of the plaintiff. Ought. tit. 214, Pl. 1; Clarke's Prax. tit. 115; Shelf. on Mar. & Div. 439; 1 Hagg. Cons. R. 148. See Condonation; Divorce.

COMPENSATION, remedies. The damages recovered for an injury, or the violation of a contract.. See Damages.

COMPERUIT AD DIEM, pleading. He appeared at the day. This is the name of a plea in bar to an action of debt on a bail-bond. The usual replication to this plea is nul tiel record: that there is not any such record of appearance of the said. For forms of this plea, vide 5 Wentw. 470; Lil. Entr. 114; 2 Chit. Pl. 527.

2. When the issue is joined on this plea, the trial is by the record. Vide 1 Taunt. 23; Tidd, 239. And see, generally, Com. Dig. Pleader, 2 W. 31; 7 B. & C. 478.

COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.

2. Prima facie every person offered is a competent witness, and must be received, unless Lis incompetency (q. v.) appears. 9 State Tr. 652.

3. There is a difference between competency and credibility. A witness may be competent, and, on examination, his story may be so contradictory and improbable that he may not be believed; on the contrary he may be incompetent, and yet be perfectly credible if he were examined.

4. The court are the sole judges of the competency of a witness, and may, for the purpose of deciding whether the witness is or is not competent, ascertain all the facts necessary to form a judgment. Vide 8 Watts, R. 227; and articles Credibility; Incompetency; Interest; Witness.

5. In the French law, by competency is understood the right in a court to exercise jurisdiction in a particular case; as, where the, law gives jurisdiction to the court when a thousand francs shall be in dispute, the court is competent if, the sum demanded is a thousand francs or upwards, although the plaintiff may ultimately recover less.

COMPETENT WITNESS. One who is legally qualified to be heard to testify in a cause. In Kentucky, Michigan, and Missouri, a will must be attested, for the purpose of passing lands, by competent witnesses; but if wbolly written by the testator, in Kentucky, it need not be so attested. See Attesting witness; Credible witness; Disinterested witness; Respectable witness; and Witness.

COMPETITORS, French law. Persons who compete or aspire to the same office, rank or employment. As an English word in common use, it has a much wider application. Ferriere, Dict. de Dr. h. t.

COMPILATION. A literary production, composed of the works of others, and arranged in some methodical manner.

2. When a compilation requires in its execution taste, learning, discrimination and intellectual labor, it 'is an object of copyright; as, for example, Bacon's Abridgment. Curt. on Copyr. 186.

COMPLAINANT. One who makes a complaint. A plaintiff in a suit in chancery is so called.

COMPLAINT, crim. law. The allegation made to a proper officer, that some person, whether known or unknown, has been guilty of a designated offence, with an offer to prove the fact, and a request that the offender may be punished.

2. To have a legal effect, the complaint must be supported by such evidence as shows that an offence has been committed, and renders it certain or probable that it was committed by the person named or described in the complaint.

COMPOS MENTIS. Of sound mind. See non compos mentis.

COMPOSITION, contracts. An agreement, made upon a sufficient consideration, between a debtor and creditor, by which the creditor accepts part of the debt due to him in satisfaction of the whole. Montagu on Compos. 1; 3 Co. 118; Co. Litt. 212, b; 4 Mod. 88; 1 Str. 426; 2 T. R. 24, 26; 2 Chit. R. 541, 564; 5 D. & R. 56 3 B. & C. 242; 1 R. & M. 188; 1 B. & A. 103, 440; 3 Moore's R. 11; 6 T. R. 263; 1 D. & R. 493; 2 Campb. R. 283; 2 M. & S. 120; 1 N. R. 124; Harr. Dig. Deed VIII.

2. In England, compositions were formerly allowed for crimes and misdemeanors, even for murder. But these compositions are no longer allowed, and even a qui tam action cannot be lawfully compounded. Bac. Ab. Actions qui tam, See 2 John. 405; 9 John. 251; 10 John. 118; 11 John. 474; 6 N. H.-Rep. 200.

COMPOSITION OF MATTER. In describing the subjects of patents, the Act of Congress of July 4, 1836, sect. 6, uses the words "composition of matter;" these words are usually applied to mixtures and chemical compositions, and in these cases it is enough that the compound is new. Both the composition and the mode of compounding may be considered as included in the invention, when the compound is new.

COMPOUND INTEREST. Interest allowed upon interest; for example, when a sum of money due for interest, is added to the principal, and then bears interest. This is not, in general, allowed. See Interest for money.

COMPOUNDER, in Louisiana. He who makes a composition. An amicable compounder is one who has undertaken by the agreement of the parties to compound or settle differences. between them. Code of Pract. of Lo. art. 444.

COMPOUNDING A FELONY, The act of a party immediately aggrieved, who agrees with a thief or other felon that he will not prosecute him, on condition that he return to him the goods stolen, or who takes a reward not to prosecute. This is an offence punishable by fine and imprisonment. The mere retaking by the owner of stolen goods is no offence, unless the offender is not to be prosecuted. Hale, P. C. 546 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 4.

COMPROMISE, contracts. An agreement between two or more persons, who, to avoid a lawsuit, amicably settle their differences, on such terms as they can agree upon. Vide Com. Dig. App. tit. Compromise.

2. It will be proper to consider, 1. by whom the compromise must be made; 2. its form; 3. the subject of the compromise; 4. its effects.

3. It must be made by a person having a right and capacity to enter into the contract, and carry out his part of it, or by one having lawful authority from such person.

4. The compromise may be by parol or in writing, and the writing may be under seal or not: though as a general rule a partner cannot bind his copartner by deed, unless expressly authorized, yet it would seem that a compromise with the principal is an act which a partner may do in behalf of his copartners, and that, though under seal, it would conclude the firm. 2 Swanst. 539.

5. The compromise may relate to a civil claim, either as a matter of contract, or for a tort, but it must be of something uncertain; for if the debt be certain and undisputed, a payment of a part will not, of itself, discharge the whole. A claim connected with a criminal charge cannot be compromised. 1 Chit. Pr. 17. See Nev. & Man. 275.

6. The compromise puts an end to the suit, if it be proceeding, and bars any Suit which may afterwards be instituted. It has the effect of res judicata. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 798-9.

7. In the civil law, a compromise is an agreement between two or more persons, who, wishing to settle their disputes, refer the matter, in controversy to arbitrators, who are so called because those who choose them give them full powers to arbitrate and decide what shall appear just and reasonable, to put an end -to the differences of which they are made the judges. 1 Domat, Lois Civ. lib. h. t. 14. Vide Submission; Ch. Pr. Index, h. t.

COMPROMISSARIUS, civil law. A name sometimes given to an arbitrator; because the parties to the submission usually agree to fulfil his award as a compromise.

COMPTROLLERS. There are officers who bear this name, in the treasury depart ment of the United States.

2. There are two comptrollers. It is the duty of the first to examine all accounts settled by the first and fifth auditors, and certify the balances arising thereon to the register; to countersign all warrants drawn by the secretary.of the treasury, other than those drawn on the requisitions of the sec retaries of the war and navy departments, which shall be warranted by law; to report to the secretary the official forms to be issued in the different offices for collecting the public revenues, and the manner and form of stating the accounts of the several persons employed therein; and to superintend the preservation of the public accounts, subject to his revision; and to provide for the payment of all moneys which may be collected. Act of March 3, 1817, sect. 8; Act of Sept. 2, 1789, s. 2 Act of March 7, 1822 .

3. To superintend the recovery of all debts due to the United States; to direct suits and legal proceedings, and to take such measures as may be authorized by the laws, to enforce prompt payment of all such debt; Act of March 3, 1817, sect. 10; Act of Sept. 2, 1789, s. 2; to lay before congress annually, during the first week of their session, a list of such officers as shall have failed in that year to make the settlement required by law; and a statement of the accounts in the treasury, war, and navy departments, which may have remained more than three years unsettled, or on which balauces appear to have been due more than three years prior to the thirteenth day of September, then last past; together with a statement of the causes which have prevented a settlement of the accounts, or the recovery of the balances due to the United States. Act of March 3, 1809, sect. 2.

4. Besides these, this officer is required to perform minor duties, which the plan of this work forbids to be enumerated here.

5. His salary is three thousand five hundred dollars per annum. Act of Feb. 20, 1804, s. 1.

6. The duties of the second comptroller are to examine all accounts settled by the second, third and fourth auditors, and certify the balances arising -thereon to the secretary of the department in which the expenditure has been incurred; to counter-sign all the warrants drawn by the secretary of the treasury upon the requisition of the secretaries of the war and navy departments, which shall be warranted by law; to report to the said secretaries the official forms to be issued in the different offices for disbursing public money in those departments, and the manner and form of keeping and stating the accounts of the persons employed therein, and to superintend the preservation of public accounts subject to his revision. His salary is three thousand dollars per annum. Act of March 3, 1817, s. 9 and 15; Act of May 7, 1822.

7. A similar officer exists in several of the states, whose official title is comptroller of the public accounts, auditor general, or other title descriptive of the duties of the office.

COMPULSION. The forcible inducement to au act.

2. Compulsion may be lawful or unlawful. 1. When a man is compelled by lawful authority to do that which be ought to do, that compulsion does not affect the validity of theact; as for example, when a court of competent jurisdiction compels a party to execute a deed, under the pain of attachment for contempt, the grantor cannot object to it on the ground of compulsion. 2. But if the court compelled a party to do an act forbidden by law, or not having jurisdiction over the parties or the subject-matter, the act done by such compulsion would be void. Bowy. Mod. C. L. 305.

3. Compulsion is never presumed. Coercion. (q. v.)

COMPURGATOR. Formerly, when a person was accused of a crime, or sued in a civil action, he might purge himself upon oath of the accusation made against him, whenever the proof was not the most clear and positive; and if upon his oath he declared himself innocent, he was absolved.

2. This usage, so eminently calculated to encourage perjury by impunity, was soon found to be dangerous to the public safety. To remove this evil the laws were changed, by requiring that the oath should be administered with the greatest solemnity; but the form was soon disregarded, for the mind became. easily familiarized to those ceremonies which at first imposed on the imagination, and those who cared not to violate the truth did not hesitate to treat the form with contempt. In order to give a greater weight to the oath of the accused, the law was again altered so as to require that the accused should appear before the judge with a certain number of his neighbors, relations or friends, who should swear that they believed the accused had sworn truly. This new species of witnesses were called compurgators.

3. The number of compurgators varied according to the nature of the charge and other circumstances. Encyclopedie, h. t.. Vide Du Cange, Gloss. voc. Juramentum; Spelman's Gloss. voc. Assarth; Merl. Rep. mot Conjurateurs.

4. By the English law, when a party was sued in debt or simple contract, detinue, and perhaps some other forms of action, the defendant might wage his law, by producing eleven compurgators who would swear they believed him on his oath, by which he discharged himself from the action in certain cases. Vide 3 Bl. Com. 341-848; Barr. on the Stat. 344; 2 Inst. 25; Terms de la Ley; Mansel on Demurrer, 130, 131 Wager of Law.

COMPUTATION counting, calculation. It is a reckoning or ascertaining the number of any thing.

2. It is sometimes used in the common law for the true reckoning or account of time. Time is computed in two ways; first, naturally, counting years, days and hours; and secondly, civilly, that is, that when the last part of the time has once commenced, it is considered as accomplished. Savig. Dr. Rom. 182. See Infant; Fraction. For the computation of a year, see Com. Dig. Ann; of a mouth, Com. Dig. Temps. A; 1 John. Cas. 100 15 John. R. 120; 2 Mass. 170, n.; 4 Mass. 460; 4 Dall. 144; 3 S. & R. 169; of a day, vide Day.; and 3, Burr 1434; 11 Mass. 204; 2 Browne, 18; Dig. 3, 4, 5; Salk. 625; 3 Wils. 274.

3. It is a general rule that when an act is to be done within a certain time, one day is to be taken inclusively, and one exclusively. Vide Lofft, 276; Dougl. 463; 2 Chit. Pr. 69; 3 Id. 108, 9; 3 T. R. 623; 2 Campb. R. 294; 4 Man. and Ryl. 300, n. (b) 5 Bingh. R. 339; S. C. 15, E. C. L. R. 462; 3 East, R. 407; Hob. 139; 4 Moore, R. 465; Har. Dig. Time, computation of; 3 T. R. 623; 5 T. R. 283; 2 Marsh. R. 41; 22 E. C. L. R. 270; 13 , E, C. L. R. 238; 24 E. C. L. R. 53; 4 Wasb. C. C. R. 232; 1 Ma-son, 176; 1 Pet. 60; 4 Pet. 349; 9 Cranch, 104; 9 Wheat. 581. Vide Day; Hour; Month; Year.

CONCEALMENT, contracts. The unlawful suppression of any fact or circumstance, by one of the partis to a contract, from the other, which in justice ought to be made known. 1 Bro. Ch. R. 420; 1 Fonbl. Eq. B. 1, c. 3, 4, note (n); 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 207.

2. Fraud occurs when one person substantially misrepresents or conceals a material fact peculiarly within his own knowledge, in consequence of which a delusion exists; or uses a device naturally calculated to lull the suspicions of a careful man, and induce him to forego inquiry into a matter upon which the other party has information, although such information be not exclusively within his reach. 2 Bl. Com. 451; 3 Id. 166; Sugd. Vend. 1 to 10; 1 Com. Contr. 38; 3 B. & C. 623; 5 D. & R. 490; 2 Wheat. 183; 11 Id. 59; 1 Pet. Sup. C. R. 15, 16. The party is not bound, however, to disclose patent defects. Sugd. Vend. 2.

3. A distinction has been made between the concealment of latent defects in real and personal property. For example, the concealment by an agent that a nuisance existed in connexion with a house the owner had to hire, did not render the lease void. 6 IV. & M. 358. 1 Smith, 400. The rule with regard to personalty is different. 3 Camp. 508; 3 T. R. 759.

4. In insurances, where fairness is so essential to, the contract, a concealment which is only the effect of accident, negligence, inadvertence, or mistake, if material, is equally fatal to the contract as if it were intentional and fraudulent. 1 Bl. R. 594; 3 Burr. 1909. The insured is required to disclose all the circumstances within his own knowledge only, which increase the risk. He is not, however, bound to disclose general circumstances which apply to all policies of a particular description, notwithstanding they may greatly increase the risk. Under this rule, it has been decided that a policy is void, which was obtaineed by the concealment by the assured of the fact that he had heard that a vessel like his was taken. 2 P. Wms. 170. And in a case where the assured had information of "a violent storm" about eleven hours after his vessel had sailed, and had stated only that "there had been blowing weather and severe storms on the coast after the vessel had sailed" but without any reference to the particular storm it was decided that this was a concealment, which vitiated the policy. 2 Caines R. 57. Vide 1 Marsh. Ins: 468; Park, Ins. 276; 14 East, R. 494; 1 John. R. 522; 2 Cowen, 56; 1 Caines, 276; 3 Wash. C. C. Rep. 138; 2 Gallis. 353; 12 John. 128.

5. Fraudulent concealment avoids the contract. See, generally, Verpl. on Contr. passim; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 9; 1 Bell's Com. B. 2, pt. 3, c. 15 s. 3, 1; 1 M. & S. 517; 2 Marsh. R. 336.

CONCESSI, conveyancing. This is a Latin word, signifying, I have granted. It was frequently used when deeds and other conveyances were written in Latin.. It is a word of general extent, and is said to amount to a grant, feoffment, lease, release, and the like. 2 Saund. 96; Co. Lift. 301, 302; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 5 Whart. R. 278.

2. It has been held that this word in a feoffment or fine implies no -warranty. Co. Lit. 384 Noke's Case, 4 Rep. 80; Vaughan's Argument in Hayes v. Bickoxsteth, Vaughan, 126; Butler"s Note, Co. Lit. 3 84. But see 1 Freem. 339, 414.

CONCESSION. A grant. This word is frequently used in this sense when applied to grants made by the French and Spanish governments in Louisiana.

CONCESSIMUS. A Latin word, which signifies, we have granted. This word creates a covenant in law, for the breach of which the grantors may be jointly sued. It imports no warranty of a freehold, but as in case of a lease for years. Spencer's Case, 5 Co. Rep. 16 Brown v. Heywood, 3 Keble, Rep. 617 Bac. Ab. Covenant, B. See Bac. Ab. officers, &c. E.

CONCESSOR. A grantor; one who makes a concession to another.

CONCILIUM. A day allowed to a defendant to make his defence; an imparlance, 4 Bl. Com. 356, n.; 3 T. R. 530.

CONCILIUM REGIS. The name of a tribunal which existed in England during the times of Edward I. and Edward H., composed of the judges and sages of the law. To them were referred cases of great difficulty. Co. Litt. 804.

CONCLAVE. An assembly of cardinals for the purpose of electing a pope; the place where the assembly is held is also called a conclave. It derives this name from the fact that all the windows and doors are looked, with the exception of a single panel, which admits a gloomy light.

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