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CONSTRUCTIVE. That which is interpreted.

2. Constructive presence. The commission of crimes, is, when a party is not actually present, an eye-witness to its commission but, acting with others, watching while another commits the crime. 1 Russ. Cr. 22.

3. Constructive larceny. One where the taking was not apparently felonious, but by construction of the prisoner's acts it is just to presume he intended at the time of taking to appropriate the property feloniously to his own use; 2 East, P. C. 685; 1 Leach, 212; as when he obtained the delivery of the goods animo furandi. 2 N. & M. 90. See 15 S. & R. 93; 4 Mass. 580; I Bay, 242.

4. Constructive breaking into a house. In order to commit a burglary, there must be a breaking of the house; this may be actual or constructive. A constructive breaking is when the burglar gains an entry into the house by fraud, conspiracy, or threat. See Burglary, A familiar instance of constructive breaking is the case of a burglar who coming to the house under pretence of business, gains adiuittance, and after being admitted, commits such acts as, if there had been an actual brooking, would have amounted to a burglary Bac. Ab. Burglary, A. See 1 Moody Cr. Cas. 87, 250.

5. Constructive notice. Such a notice, that although it be not actual, is sufficient in law; an example of this is the recording of a deed, which is notice to all the world, and so is the pendancy of a suit a general notice of an equity. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3874. See Lis pendens.

6. Constructive annexation. The annexation to the inheritance by the law, of certain things which are not actually attached to it; for example, the keys of a house; and heir looms are constructively annexed. Shep. Touch. 90; Poth- Traits des Choses, 1.

7. Constructive fraud. A contract or act, which, not originating in evil design and contrivance to perpetuate a positive fraud or injury upon other persons, yet, by its necessary tendency to deceive or mislead them, or to violate a public or private confidence, or to impair or injure public interest, is deemed equally reprehensible with positive fraud, and therefore is prohibited by law, as within the same reason and mischief as contracts and acts done malo animo. 1 Story, Eq. 258 to 440.

CONSUETUDINES FEUDORUM. The name of an institute of the feudal system and usages, compiled about the year 1170, by authority of the emperor Frederic, surnamed Barbarossa. Ersk. Inst. B. 2, t. 3, n. 5. CONSUL, government, commerce. Consuls are commercial agent's appointed by a government to reside in the seaports of a foreign country, and commissioned to watch over the commercial rights an@ privileges of the nation deputing them. A vice-consul is one acting in the place of a consul.

2. Consuls have been greatly multiplied. Their duties and privileges are now generally limited, defined and secured by commercial treaties, or by the laws of the countries they represent. As a general rule, it may be laid down that they represent the subjects or citizens of their own nation, not otherwise represented. Bee, R. 209 3 Wheat. R. 435; 6. Wheat. R., 152; 10 Wheat. 66; 1 Mason's R. 14.

3. This subject will be considered by a view, first, of the appointment, duties, powers, rights, and liabilities of American consuls; and secondly, of the recognition, duties, rights, and liabilities of foreign consuls.

4. - 1. Of American consuls. First. The president authorized by the Constitution of the United States, art. 2, s. 2, el. 3, to nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, appoint consuls.

5. - Secondly. Each consul and vice-consul is required, before he enters on the execution of his office, to give bond, with such sureties as shall be approved by the secretary of state, in a sum not less than two thousand nor more than ten thousand dollars, conditioned for the true and faithful discharge of the duties of his office, and also for truly accounting for all moneys, goods and effects which may come into his possession by virtue of the act of 14th April, 1792, which bond is to be lodged in the office of the secretary of State. Act of April 14, 1792, sect. 6.

6. - Thirdly. They have the power and are required to perform many duties in relation to the commerce of the United States and towards masters of ships, mariners, and other citizens of the United States; among these are the authority to receive protests or declarations which captains, masters, crews, passengers, merchants, and others make relating to American commerce; they are required to administer on the estate of American citizens, dying within their consulate, and leaving no legal representatives, when the laws of the country permit it; [see 2 Curt. Ecc. R. 241] to take charge and secure the effects of stranded American vessels in the absence of the master, owner or consignee; to settle disputes between masters of vessels and the mariners; to provide for destitute seamen within their consulate, and send them to the United States, at the public expense. See Act of 14th April, 1792; Act of 28th February, 1803, ch. 62; Act of 20th July, 1840, Ch. 23. The consuls are also authorized to make certificates of certain facts in certain cases, which receive faith and credit in the courts of the United States. But those consular certificates are not to be received in evidence, unless they are given in the performance of a consular function; 2 Cranch, R. 187; Paine, R. 594; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 478; 1 Litt. R. 71; nor are they evidence, between persons not parties or privies to the transaction, of any fact, unless, either expressly or impliedly, made so by statute. 2 Sumn. R. 355.

7. - Fourthly. Their rights are to be protected agreeably to the laws of nations, and of the treaties made between the nation to which they are sent, and the United States. They are entitled, by the act of 14th April, 1792, s. 4, to receive certain fees, which are there enumerated. And the consuls in certain places, as London, Paris, and the Barbary states, receive, besides, a salary.

8. - Fifthly. A consul is liable for negligence or omission to perform, seasonably, the duties imposed upon him, or for any malversation or abuse of power, to any injured person, for all damages occasioned thereby; and for all malversation and corrupt conduct in office, a consul is liable to indictment, and, on conviction by any court of competent jurisdiction, shall be fined not less than one, nor more than ten thousand dollars; and be imprisoned not less than one nor more than five years. Act of July 20, 1840, ch. 23, cl. 18. The act of February 28, 1803, ss. 7 and 8, imposes heavy penalties for falsely and knowingly certifying that property belonging to foreigners is the property of citizens of the United States; or for granting a passport, or other paper, certifying that any alien, knowing him or her to be such, is a citizen of the United States.

9. The duties of consuls residing on the Barbary coast are prescribed by a particular statute. Act of May 1, 1810, S. 4.

10. - 2. Of foreign consuls. First. Before a consul can perform any duties in the United States, he must be recognized by the president of the United States, and have received his exequatur. (q. v.)

11. - Secondly. A consul is clothed only with authority for commercial purposes, and he has a right to interpose claims for the restitution of property belonging to the citizens or subjects of the country he represents; 10 Wheat. R. 66; 1 Mason R. 14; See, R. 209; 6 Wheat. R. 152; but he is not to be considered as a minister or diplomatic Agent, entrusted by virtue of his office to represent his sovereign in negotiations with foreign states. 3 Wheat, R. 435.

12. - Thirdly. Consuls are generally invested with special privileges by local laws and usages, or by international compact; but by the laws of nations they are not entitled to the peculiar immunities of ambassadors. In civil and criminal cases, they are subject to the local laws in the same manner with other foreign residents owing a temporary allegiance to the state. Wicquefort, De l'Ambassadeur, liv. 1, 5; Bynk. cap. 10 Martens, Droit des Gens, liv. 4, c. 3, 148. In the United States, the act of September 24th, 1789, s. 13 gives to the supreme court original, but not exclusive jurisdiction of all suits in which a consul or vice-consul shall be a party. The act last cited, section 9, gives to the district courts of the United States, jurisdiction exclusively of the courts of the several states, of all suits against consuls or vice-consuls, except for offences where whipping exceeding thirty stripes, a fine exceeding one hundred dollars, or a term of imprisonment exceeding six months, is inflicted. For offences punishable beyond these penalties, the circuit has jurisdiction in the case of consuls. 5 S. & R. 545. See 1 Binn. 143; 2 Dall. 299; 2 N. & M. 217; 3 Pick. R. 80; 1 Green, R. 107; 17 Johns. 10; 6 Pet. R. 41; 7 Pet. R. 276; 6 Wend. 327.

13. - Fourthly. His functions may be suspended at any time by the government to which he is sent, and his exequatur revoked. In general, a consul is not liable, personally, on a contract made in his official capacity on account of his government. 3 Dall. 384.

14. During the middle ages, the term consul was sometimes applied to ordinary judges; and, in the Levant, maritime judges are yet called consuls. 1 Boul. Paty, Dr. Mar. Tit. Prel. s. 2, p. 57.

15. Among the Romans, consuls were chief magistrates who were annually elected by the people, and were invested with powers and functions similar to those of kings. See, generally, Abbott on Ship. 210; 2 Bro. Civ. Law, 503; Merl. Repert. h. t.; Ayl. Pand. 160; Warden on Consuls; Marten on Consuls; Borel, de l'Origine, et des Fonctions des Consuls; Rawle on the Const. 222, 223; Story on the Const. 1654 Serg. Const. Law, 225; Azuni, Mar. Law, part 1, c. 4, art. 8, 7.

CONSULTATION, practice. A conference between the counsel or attorneys engaged on the same side of a cause, for the purpose of examining their case, arranging their proofs, and removing any difficulties there may be in their way.

2. This should be had sufficiently early to enable the counsel to obtain an amendment of the pleadings, or further evidence. At these consultations the exact course to be taken by the plaintiff in exhibiting his proofs should be adopted, in consultation, by the plaintiff's counsel. In a consultation on a defendant's case, it is important to ascertain the statement of the defence, and the evidence which may be depended upon to support it; to arrange the exact course of defence, and to determine on the cross-examination of the plaintiff's witnesses; and, above all, whether or not evidence shall be given on the part of the defendant, or withheld, so as to avoid a reply on the part of the plaintiff. The wishes of the client should, in all cases, be consulted. 3 Chit. Pr. 864.

CONSULTATION, Eng. law. The name of a writ whereby a cause, being formerly removed by prohibition out of an inferior court into some of the king's courts in Westminster, is returned thither again for if the judges of the superior court, comparing the proceedings with the suggestion of the party, find the suggestion false or not proved, and that therefore the cause was wrongfully called from the inferior court, then, upon consultation and deliberation, they decree it to be returned, where upon this writ issues. T. de la Ley.

CONSULTATION, French law. The opinion of counsel, on a point of law submitted to them. Dict. de Jur. h. t.

CONSUMATE. What is completed. A right is said to be initiate, when it is not complete; and when it is perfected, it is consummated.

CONSUMMATION. The completion of a thing; as the consummation of marriage; (q. v.) the consummation of a contract, and the like.

2. A contract is said to be consummated, when everything to be done in relation to it, has been accomplished. It is frequently of great importance to know when a contract has been consummated, in order to ascertain the rights of the parties, particularly in the contract of sale. Vide Delivery, where the subject is more fully examined. It is also sometimes of consequence to ascertain where the consummation of the contract took place, in order to decide by what law it is to be governed.

3. It has been established as a rule, that when a contract is made by persons absent from each other, it is considered as consummated in, and is governed by the law of, the country where the final assent is given. If, therefore, Paul in New Orleans, order goods from Peter in London, the contract is governed by the laws of the latter place. 8 M. R. 135; Plowd. 843. Vide Conflict of Laws;, Inception; Lex Loci Contractus; Lex Fori; Offer.

CONSUMMATION OF MARRIAGE. The first time that the husband and wife cobabit together, after the ceremony of marriage has been performed, is thus called.

2. The marriage, when otherwise legal, is complete without this; for it is a maxim of law, borrowed from the civil, law, that consensus, non concubitus, facit nuptias. Co. Litt. 33; Dig. 50, 17, 30; 1 Black. Com. 434.

CONTAGIOUS DISORDERS, police, crim. law. Diseases which are capable of being transmitted by mediate or immediate contact.

2. Unlawfully and injuriously to expose persons infected with the smallpox or other contagious disease in the public streets where persons are passing, or near the habitations of others, to their great danger, is indictable at common law. 1 Russ. Cr. 114. Lord Hale seems to doubt whether if a person infected with the plague, should go abroad with intent to infect another, and another should be infected and die, it would not be murder; and he thinks it clear that though there should be no such intent, yet if another should be infected, it would be a great misdemeanor. 1 Pl. Cor. 422. Vide 4 M. & S. 73, 272; Dane's Ab. h. t.

CONTEMPORANEOUS EXPOSITION. The construction of a law, made shortly after its enactment, when the reasons for its passage were then fresh in the minds of the judges, is considered as of great weight: contemporanea expositio est optima et fortissima in lege. 1 Cranch, 299.

CONTEMPT, crim. law. A wilful disregard or disobedience of a public authoritoy.

2. By the Constitution of the United States, each house of congress may determine the rules of its proceeding's, punish its members for disorderly behaviour, and, with the concurrence of two-thirds, expel a member. The same provision is substantially contained in the constitutions of the several states.

3. The power to make rules carries that of enforcing them, and to attach persons who violate them, and punish them for contempts. This power of punishing for contempts, is confined to punishment during the session of the legislature, and cannot extend beyond it; 6 Wheat. R. 204, 230, 231 and, it seems this power cannot be exerted beyond imprisonment.

4. Courts of justice have an inherent power to punish all persons for contempt of their rules and orders, for disobedience of their process, and for disturbing them in their proceedings. Bac. Ab. Courts and their jurisdiction in general, E; Rolle's Ab. 219; 8 Co. 38 11 Co. 43 b.; 8 Shepl. 550; 5 Ired. R. 199.

5. In some states, as in Pennsylvania, the power to punish for contempts is restricted to offences committed by the officers of the court, or in its presence, or in disobedience of its mandates, orders, or rules; but no one is guilty of a contempt for any publication made or act done out of court, which is not in violation of such lawful rules or orders, or disobedience of its process. Similar provisions, limiting the power of the courts of the United States to punish for contempts, are incorporated in the Act March 2, 1831. 4 Sharsw. cont. of Stor. L. U. S. 2256. See Oswald's Case, 4 Lloyd's Debates, 141,. et seq.

6. When a person is in prison for a contempt, it has been decided in New York that he cannot be discharged by another judge, when brought before him on a habeas corpus; and, according to Chancellor Kent, 3 Com. 27, it belongs exclusively to the court offended to judge of contempts, and what amounts to them; and no other court or judge can, or ought to undertake, in a collateral way, to question or review an adjudication of a contempt made by another competent jurisdiction. This way be considered as the establisbed doctrine equally in England as in this country. 3 Wils. 188 14 East, R. 12 Bay, R. 182 6 Wheat. R. 204 7 Wheat. R. 38; 1 Breese, R. 266 1 J. J. Marsh. 575; Charlt. R. 136; 1 Blackf. 1669 Johns. 395 6 John. 337.

CONTENTIOUS JURISDICTION, eccl. law. In those cases where there is an action or judicial process, and it consists in hearing and determining the matter between party and party, it is said there is contentious jurisdiction, in contradistinction to voluntary jurisdiction, which is exercised in matters that require no judicial proceeding, as in taking probate of wills, granting letters of administration, and the like. 3 Bl. Com. 66.

CONTESTATIO LITIS, civil law. The joinder of issue in a cause. Code of Pr. of Lo. art. 357.

CONTESTATION. The act by which two parties to an action claim the same right, or when one claims a right to a thing which the other denies; a controversy. Wolff, Dr. de la Nat. 762.

CONTEXT. The general series or composition of a law, contract, covenant, or agreement.

2. When, there is any obscurity in the words of an agreement or law, the context must be considered in its construction, for it must be performed according to the intention of its framers. 2 Cowen, 781,; 3 Miss. 447 1 Harringt. 154; 6 John. 43; 5 Gill & John. 239; 3 B. & P. 565; 8 East, 80 1 Dall. 426; 4 Dall. 340; 3 S. & R. 609 See Construction; Interpretation.

CONTINGENT. What may or may not happen;. what depends upon a doubtful event; as, a contingent debt, which is a debt depending upon some uncertain event. 9 Ves. It. 110; Co. Bankr. Laws, 245; 7 Ves. It. 301; 1 Ves. & Bea. 176; 8 Ves. R. 334; 1 Rose, R. 523; 3 T. R. 539; 4 T. R. 570. A contingent legacy is one which is not vested. Will. on Executors, h. t. See Contingent Remainder; Contingent Use.

CONTINGENT DAMAGES. Those given where the issues upon counts to which no demurrer has been filed, are tried, before demurrer to one or more counts in the same declaration has been decided. 1 Str. 431.

CONTINGENT ESTATE. A contingent estate depends for its effect upon an event which may or may not happen: as an estate limited to a person not in esse or not yet born. Crabb on Real Property, b. 3, c. 1, sect. 2. 946.

CONTINGENT REMAINDER, estates. An estate in remainder which is limited to take effect, either to a dubious and uncertain person, or upon a dubious and uncertain event, by, which no present or particular interest passes to the remainder-man, so that the particular estate may chance to be determined and the remainder never take effect. 2, Bouv. Inst. n. 1832. Vide Remainder.

CONTINGENT USE, estates. A use limited in a deed or conveyance of land which may or may not happen to vest, according to the contingency expressed in the limitation of such use. A contingent use is such as by possibility may happen in possession, reversion or remainder. 1 Rep. 121 Com. Dig. Uses, K. 6.

CONTINUAL CLAIM, English law. When the feoffee of land is prevented from taking possession by fear of menaces or bodily harm, he may make a claim -to the land in the presence of the vares, and if this claim is regularly made once every year and a day, which is then called a continual claim, it preserves to the feoffee his rights, and is equal to a legal entry. 3 Bl. Com. 175; 2 Bl. Com. 320; 1 Chit. Pr. 278 (a) in note; Crabbe's Inst. E. L. 403.

CONTINUANCE, practice. The adjournment of a cause from one day to another is called a continuance, an entry of which is made upon the record.

2. If these continuances are omitted, the cause is thereby discontinued, and the defendant is discharged sine die, (q. v.) without a day, for this term. By his appearance he has obeyed the command of the writ, and, unless he be adjourned over to a certain day, he is no longer bound to attend upon that summons. 3 Bl. Com. 316.

3. Continuances may, however, be entered at any time, and if not entered, the want of them is aided or cured by the appearance of the parties; and Is a discontinuance can never be objected to pendente placito, so after the judgment it is cured by the statute of jeofails. Tidd's Pr. 628, 835.

4. Before the declaration the continuance is by dies datus prece partium; after the declaration and before issue joined, by imparlance; after issue joined and before verdict, by vicecomes non misit breve; and after verdict or demurrer by curia advisare vult. 1 Chit. Pl. 421, n. (p); see Vin. Abr. 454; Bac. Abr. Pleas, &c. P; Bac. Abr. Trial, H.; Com. Dig. Pleader, V. See, as to the origin of continuances, Steph. Pl. 31; 1 Ch. Pr. 778, 779.

CONTINUANDO, plead. The Dame of an averment sometimes contained in a declaration in trespass, that the injury or trespass has been continued. For example, if Paul turns up the ground of Peter and tramples upon his grass, for three days together, and Peter desires to recover damages, as well for the subsequent acts of treading down the grass and subverting the soil, as for the first, he must complain of such subsequent trespasses in his actions brought to compensate the former. This he may do by averring that Paul, on such a day, trampled upon the herbage and turned up the ground, " continuing the said trespasses for three days following." This averment seems to impart a continuation of the same identical act of trespass; it has, however, received, by continued usage, another interpretation, and is taken, also, to denote a repetition of the same kind of injury. When the trespass is not of the same kind, it cannot be averred in a continuando; for example, when the injury consists in killing and carrying away an animal, there remains nothing to which a similar injury may again be offered. 1 Wms. Saund. 24, n. 1.

2. There is a difference between he continuando and the averment diversis diebus et temporibus, on divers days and times. In the former, the injuries complained of have been committed upon one and the same occasion; in the latter, the acts complained of, though of the same kind, are distinct and unconnected, See Gould, Pl. ch. 3, 86, et seq.; Ham. N. P. 90, 91 Bac. A. Trespass, I 2, n. 2.

CONTINUING CONSIDERATION. A continuing consideration is one which in point of time remains good and binding, although it may have served before to Support a contract. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 628; 1 Saund. 320 e, note (5.)

CONTINUING DAMAGES. Those which are continued at different times, or which endure from one time to another. If a person goes upon successive day's and tramples the grass of the plaintiff, he commits continuing damages; or if one commit a trespass to the possession, and it is in fact injurious to him who has the reversion or remainder, this will be continuing damages. In this last case the person in possession may have an action of trespass against the wrong doer to his possession, and the reversioner has an action against him for an injury to the reversion. 1 Chit. Pr. 266, 268, 385; 4 Burr. 2141 , 3 Car. & P. 817.

CONTRA. Over; against; opposite to anything: as, such a case lays down a certain principle; such other case, contra.

CONTRA BONOS MORES. Against good morals.

2. All contracts contra bonos mores, are illegal. These are reducible to Several classes, namely, those which are, 1. lncentive to crime. A claim cannot be sustained, therefore, on. a bond for compounding a crime; as, for example, a prosecution for perjury; 2 Wils. R. 341, 447; or for procuring a pardon. A distinction has been made between a contract made as a reparation for an injury to the honor of a female, and one which is to be the reward of future illicit cohabitation; the former is good and valid, and the latter is illegal. 3 Burr. 1568; 1 Bligh's R. 269.

3. - 2. Indecent or mischievous consideration. An obligation or engagement prejudicial to the feelings of a third party; or offensive to decency or morality; or which has a tendency to mischievous or pernicious consequences, is void. Cowp. 729; 4 Campb. R. 152; Rawle's R. 42; 1 B. & A. 683; 4 Esp. Cas. 97; 16 East R. 150; Vide Wagers.

4. - 3. Gaming. The statutes against gaming render all contracts made for the purpose of gaming, void. Vide Gaming; Unlawful; Void.

CONTRA FORMAM STATUTI. Contrary to the form of the statute.

2.- 1. When one statute prohibits a thing and another gives the penalty, i n an action for the penalty, the declaration should conclude contra fornam statutorum. Plowd. 206; 2 East, R. 333; Esp. on Pen. Act. 111; 1 Gallis. R. 268. The same rule applies to informations and indictments. 2 Hale, P. C. 172; 2 Hawk. c. 25, 117 Owen, 135.

3. - 2. But where a statute refers to a former one, and adopts and, continues the provisions of it, the declaration or indictment should conclude contraformam statuti. Hale, P. C, 172; 1 Lutw. 212.

4. - 3. Where a thing is prohibited by several statutes, if one only gives the action, and the others are explanatory and restrictive, the conclusion should be contra formam statuti. Yelv. 116; Cro. Jac. 187 Noy, 125, S. C.; Rep. temp. Hard. 409 Andr. 115, S. C.; 2 Saund. 377.

5. - 4. When the act prohibited was not an offence or ground of action at common law, it is necessary both in criminal and civil cases to conclude against the form of the statute or statutes. 1 Saund, 135, c.; 2 East, 333; 1 Chit. Pl. 358; 1 Saund. 249; 7 East, 516; 2 Mass. 116; 7 Mass. 9; 11 Mass. 280; 10 Mass. 36; 1 M'Cord, 121; 1 Gallis. 30.

6. - 5. But if the act prohibited by the statute is an offence or ground of action at common law, the indictment or action may be in the common law form, and the statute need not be noticed, even though it prescribe a form of prosecution or of action-the statute remedy being merely cumulative. 2 Inst. 200; 2 Burr.-803; 4 Burr. 2351; 3 Burr. 1418; 2 Wils. 146; 3 Mass. 515.

7. - 6. When a statute only inflicts a punishment on that which was an offence at common law, the offence prescribed may be inflicted, though the statute is not noticed in the indictment. 2 Binn. 332.

8. - 7. If an indictment for an offence at common law only, conclude "against the form of the statute in such case made and provided;" or " the form of the statute" generally, the conclusion will be rejected as surplusage, and the indictment maintained as at common. law. 1 Saund. 135, 3.

9. - 8. But it will be otherwise if it conclude against the form of "the statute aforesaid," when a statute has been previously recited. 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 266, 289. See further, Com. Dig. Pleader C 76; 5 Vin. Abr. 552, 556 1 Gallis. 26, 257; 9 Pick. 162 5 Pick. 128 2 Yerg. 390; 1 Hawks. 192; 3 Conn. 1 11 Mass. 280; 5 Greenl. 79.

CONTRA PACEM, pleadings. Against the peace.

2. In actions of trespass, the words contra pacem should uniformly accompany the allegation of the injury; in some cases they are material to the foundation of the action. Trespass to lands in a foreign country cannot be sustained. 4 T. R. 503 2 Bl. Rep.. 1O58.

3. The conclusion of the declaration, in trespass or ejectment, should be contra pacem , though these are now mere words of form, and not traversable, and the omission of that allegation will be aided, if not specially demurred to. 1 Chit. Pl. 375, 6 vide Arch. Civ. Pl. 169; 5 Vin. Ab. 557 Com. Dig. Action upon the case, C 4 Pleader, 3, M 8; Prohibition, F 7.

CONTRABAND, mar. law. Its most extensive sense, means all commerce which is carried on contrary to the laws of the state. This term is also used to designate all kinds of merchandise which are used, or transported, against the interdictions published by a ban or solemn cry.

2. The term is usually applied to that unlawful commerce which is so carried on in time of war. Merlin, Repert. h. t. Commodities particularly useful in war are contraband as arms, ammunition, horses, timber for ship building, and every kind of naval stores. When articles come into use as implements of war, which were before innocent, they may be declared to be contraband. The greatest difficulty to decide what is contraband seems to have occurred in the instance of provisions, which have not been held to be universally contraband, though Vattel admits that they become so on certain occasions, when there is an expectation of reducing an enemy by famine.

3. In modern times one of the principal criteria adopted by the courts for the decision of the question, whether any particular cargo of provisions be confiscable as contraband, is to examine whether tbose provisions be in a rude or manufactured state; for all articles, in such examinations, are treated with greater indulgence in their natural condition than when wrought tip for the convenience of the enemy's immediate use. Iron, unwrought, is therefore treated with indulgence, though anchors, and other instruments fabricated out of it, are directly contraband. 1 Rob. Rep. 1 89. See Vattel, b. 3, c. 7 Chitty's L. of Nat. 120; Marsh. Ins. 78; 2 Bro. Civ., Law, 311; 1 Kent. Com. 135; 3 Id. 215. 4. Contraband of war, is the act by which, in times of war, a neutral vessel introduces, or attempts to introduce into the territory of, one of the belligerent parties, arms, ammunition, or other effects intended for, or which may serve, hostile operations. Merlin, Repert. h. t. 1 Kent, Com. 135; Mann. Comm. B. 3, c. 7; 6 Mass. 102; 1 Wheat. 382; 1 Cowen, 56 John. Cas. 77, 120.

CONTRACT. This term, in its more extensive sense, includes every description of agreement, or obligation, whereby one party becomes bound to another to pay a sum of money, or to do or omit to do a certain act; or, a contract is an act which contains a perfect obligation. In its more confined sense, it is an agreement between two or more persons, concerning something to be, done, whereby both parties are hound to each other, *or one is bound to the other. 1 Pow. Contr. 6; Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1754; Code Civ. 1101; Poth. Oblig. pt. i. c. 1, S. 1, 1; Blackstone, (2 Comm. 442,) defines it to be an agreement, upon a sufficient consideration, to do or not to do a particular thing. A contract has also been defined to be a compact between two or more persons. 6 Cranch, R. 136.

2. Contracts are divided into express or implied. An express contract is one where the terms of the agreement are openly uttered and avowed at the time of making, as to pay a stated price for certain goods. 2 BI . Com. 443.

3. Express contracts are of three sorts 1. BI parol, or in writing, as contradistinguished from specialties. 2. By specialty or under seal. 3. Of record.

4. - l. A parol contract is defined to be a bargain or voluntary agreement made, either orally or in writing not under, seal, upon a good consideration, between two or more persons capable of contracting, to, do a lawful act, or to omit to do something, the performance whereof is not enjoined by law. 1 Com. Contr. 2 Chit. Contr. 2.

5. From this definition it appears, that to constitute a sufficient parol agreement, there must be, 1st. The reciprocal or mutual assent of two or more persons competent to contract. Every agreement ought to be so certain and complete, that each party may have an action upon it; and the agreement would be incomplete if either party withheld his assent to any of its terms. Peake's R. 227; 3 T. R. 653; 1 B. & A. 681 1 Pick. R. 278. The agreement must, in general, be obligatory on both parties, or it binds neither. To this rule there are, however, some exceptions, as in the case of an infant's contract. He may always sue, though he cannot be sued, on his contract. Stra. 937. See other instances; 6 East, 307; 3 Taunt. 169; 5 Taunt. 788; 3 B. & C. 232.

6. - 2d. There must be a good and valid consideration, motive or inducement to make the promise, upon which a party is charged, for this is of the very essence of a contract under seal, and must exist, although the contract be reduced to writing. 7 T. R. 350, note (a); 2 Bl. Coin. 444. See this Dict. Consideration; Fonb. Tr. Eq. 335, n. (a) Chit. Bills. 68.

7. - 3d. There must be a thing to be done, wbicb is not forbidden; or a thing to be omitted, the performance of which is not enjoined by law. A fraudulent or immoral contract, or one contrary to public policy is void Chit. Contr. 215, 217, 222: and it is also void if contrary to a statute. Id. 228 to 250; 1 Binn. 118; 4 Dall. 298 4 Yeates, 24, 84; 6 Binn. 321; 4 Serg & Rawle, 159; 4 Dall. 269; 1 Binn. 110 2 Browne's R. 48. As to contracts which are void for want of a compliance with the statutes of frauds, see Frauds, Statute of.

8. - 2. The second kind of express contracts are specialties, or those which are made under seal, as deeds, bonds, and the like; they are not merely written, but delivered over by the party bound. The solemnity and deliberation with whicb, on account of the ceremonies to be observed, a deed or bond is presumed to be entered into, attach to it an importance and character which do not belong to a simple contract. In the case of a specially, no consideration is necessary to give it validity, even in a court of equity. Plowd. 308; 7 T. R. 477; 4 B. & A. 652; 3 T. R. 438; 3 Bingh. 111, 112; 1 Fonb. Eq, 342, note When, a contract by specialty has been changed by a parol agreement, the whole of it becomes a parol contract. 2 Watts, 451; 9 Pick. 298; see 13 Wend. 71.

9. - 3. The highest kind of express contracts are those of record, such as judgments, recognizances of bail, and in England, statutes merchant and staple, and other securities of the same nature, cutered into with the intervention of some public authority. 2 Bl. Com. 465 . See Authentic Facts.

10. Implied contracts are such as reason and justice dictates, and which, therefore, the law presumes every man undertakes to perform; as if a man employs another to do any business for him, or perform any work, the law implies that the former contracted or undertook to pay the latter as much as his labor is worth; see Quantum merwit; or if one takes up goods from a tradesman, without any agreement of price, the law concludes that he contracts to pay their value. 2 Bl. Com. 443. See Quantum valebant; Assumpsit. Com. Dig. Action upon the case upon assumpsit, A 1; Id. Agreement.

11. By the laws of Louisiana, when considered as to the obligation of the parties, contracts are either unilateral or reciprocal. When the party to whom the engagement is made, makes no express agreement on his part, the contract is called unilateral, even in cases where the law attaches certain obligations to his acceptance. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1758. A loan for use, and a loan of money, are of this kind. Poth. Ob. P. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2. A reciprocal contract is where the parties expressly enter into mutual engagements such as sale, hire, and the like. Id.

12. Contracts, considered in relation to their substance, are either commutative or independent, principal or accessory.

13. Commutative contracts, are those in which what is done, given or promised by one party, is considered as equivalent to, or in consideration of what is done, given or promised by the other. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 17GI.

14. Independent contracts are those in which the mutual acts or proniises have no relation to each other, either as ecluivalents or as considerations. Id. art. 1762.

15. A principal contract is one entered into by both parties, on their accounts, or in the several qualities they assume.

16. An accessory contract is made for assuring the performance of a prior contract, either by the same parties or by others, such as suretyship, mortgage, and pledges. Id. art. 1764. Poth. Obl. p. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2, n. 14.

17. Contracts, considered inrelation to the motive for. making them, are either gratuitous or onerous. To be gratuitous, the object of a contract must be to benefit the person with whom it is made, without any profit or advantage, received or promised, as a consideration for it. It is not, however, the less gratuitous, if it proceed either from gratitude for a benefit before received, or from the hope of receiving one hereafter, although such benefits be of a pecuniary nature. Id. art. 1766. Any thing given or promised, as a consideration for the engagement or gift; any service, interest, or condition, imposed on what is given or promised, although unequal to it in value, makes a contract onerous in its nature. Id. art. 1767.

18. Considered in relation to their effects, contracts are either certain or hazardous. A contract is certain, when the thing to be done is supposed to depend on the will of the party, or when, in the usual course of events, it must happen in the manner stipulated. It is hazardous, when the performan ce.of that which is one of its objects, depends on an uncertain event. Id. art. 1769. 19. Pothier, in his excellent treatise on Obligations, p. 1, c. 1, s. 1, art. 2, divides contracts under the five following heads:

20.- 1. Into reciprocal and unilateral.

21. - 2. Into consensual, or those which are formed by the mere consent of the parties, such as sale, hiring and mandate; and those in which it is necessary there should be something more than mere consent, such as loan of money, deposite or pledge, which from their nature require a delivery of the thing, (rei); whence they are called real contracts. See Real Contracts.

22.-3. Into-first, contracts of mutual interest, which are such as are entered into for the reciprocal interest and utility of each of the parties, as sales exchange, partnership, and the like.

23.-2d. Contracts of beneficence, which are those by which only one of the contracting parties is benefited, as loans, deposit and mandate. 3d. Mixed contracts, which are those by which one of the parties confers a benefit on the other, receiving something of inferior value in return, such as a donation subject to a charge,

24. - 4. Into principal and accessory.

25. - 5. Into those which are subjected by the civil law to certain rules and forms, and those which ate regulated by mere natural justice. See, generally, as to contracts, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Chitty on Contracts; Comyn on Contracts; Newland on Contracts; Com. Dig. titles Abatement, E 12, F 8; Admiralty, E 10, 11; Action upon the Case upon Assumpsit; Agreement; Bargain and Sale; Baron and Feme, Q; Condition; Dett, A 8, 9; Enfant, B 5; Idiot, D 1 Merchant, E 1; Pleader, 2 W, 11, 43; Trade D 3; War, B 2; Bac. Abr. tit. Agreement; Id. Assumpsit; Condition; Obligation; Vin. Abr. Condition; Contracts and Agreements; Covenants; Vendor, Vendee; Supp. to Ves. jr. vol. 2, p. 260, 295, 376, 441; Yelv. 47; 4 Ves. jr., 497, 671; Archb. Civ. Pl. 22; Code Civ. L. 3, tit. 3 to 18; Pothier's Tr. of Obligations Sugden on Vendors and Purchasers; Story's excellent treatise on Bailments; Jones on Bailments; Toullier, Droit Civil Francais, tomes 6 et 7; Ham. Parties to Actions, Ch. 1; Chit. Pr. Index, h. t.; and the articles Agreement; Apportionment; Appropriation; Assent; Assignment; Assumpsit; Attestation; Bailment; Bargain and sale; Bidder; Bilateral contract; Bill of Exchange; Buyer; Commodate; Condition; Consensual contract; Conjunctive; Consummation; Construction; Contracto of benevolence; Covenant; Cumulative contracts; Debt; Deed; Delegation. Delivery; Discharge Of a contract; Disjunctive; Equity of a redemption; Exchange; Guaranty; Impairing the obligation of contracts; Insurance; Interested contracts; Item; Misrepresentation; Mortgage; Mixed contract; Negociorum gestor; Novation; Obligation; Pactum constitutae, pecuniae; Partners; Partnership; Pledge; Promise; Purchaser; Quasi contract; Representatian; Sale; Seller; Settlement; Simple contract; Synallagmatic contract; Subrogation; Title; Unilateral contract.

CONTRACT or BENEVOLENCE, Civil law. One which is made for the benefit of only one of the contracting parties; such as loan for use, deposit, and mandate. Poth. Obl. n. 12. See Contracts.

CONTRACTION. An abbreviation; a mode of writing or printing by which some of the letters of a word are omitted. See Abbreviations.

CONTRACTOR. One who enters into a contract this term is usually applied to persons who undertake to do public work, or the work for a company or corporation on a large scale, at a certain fixed price, or to furnish goods to another at a fixed or ascertained price. 2 Pardess. n. 300. Vide 5 Whart. 366.

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