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DISTRIBUTION. By this term is understood the division of an intestate's estate according to law.

2. The English statute of 22 and 23 Car. II. c. 10, which was itself probably borrowed from the 118th Novel of Justinian, is the foundation of, perhaps, most acts of distribution in the several states. Vide 2 Kent, Com. 342, note; 8 Com. Dig. 522; 11 Vin. Ab. 189, 202; Com. Dig. Administration, H.

DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE. That virtue, whose object it is to distribute rewards and punishments to every one according to his merits or demerits. Tr. of Eq. 3; Lepage, El. du Dr. ch. 1, art. 3, 2 1 Toull. n. 7, note. See Justice.

DISTRICT. A certain portion of the country, separated from the rest for some special purposes. The United States are divided into judicial districts, in each of which is established a district court; they are also divided into election districts; collection districts, &c.

DISTRICT ATTORNEYS OF THE UNITED STATES. There shall be appointed, in each judicial district, a meet person, learned in the law, to act as attorney of the United States in such district, who shall be sworn or affirmed to the faithful execution of his office. Act of September 24, 1789, s. 35, 1 Story's Laws, 67.

2. His duty is to prosecute, in such district, all delinquents, for crimes and offences cognizable under the authority of the United States, and all civil actions in which the United States shall be concerned, except in the supreme court, in the district in which that court shall be holden. Ib.

3. Their salaries vary in different districts. Vide Gordon's Dig. art. 403. By the Act of March 3, 1815, 2 Story's L. U. S. 1530, district attorneys are authorized to appoint deputies, in certain cases, to sue in the state courts. See Deputy District Attorney.

DISTRICT COURT. The name of one of the courts of the United States. It is held by a judge, called the district judge. Several courts under the same name have been established by state authority. Vide Courts of the United States.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. The name of a district of country, ten miles square, situate between the states of Maryland and Virginia, over which the national government has exclusive jurisdiction. By the constitution, congress may " exercise exclusive jurisdiction in all cases whatsoever, over such district, not exceeding ten miles square, as may, by, cession of particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of government of the United States." In pursuance of this authority, the states of Maryland and Virginia, ceded to the United States, a small territory on the banks of the Potomac, and congress, by the Act of July 16, 1790, accepted the same for the permanent seat of the government of the United States. The act provides for the removal of the seat of government from the city of Philadelphia to the District of Columbia, on the first Monday of December, 1800. It is also provided, that the laws of the state, within such district, shall not be affected by the acceptance, until the time fixed for the removal of the government thereto, and until congress shall otherwise by law provide.

2. It seems that the District of Columbia, and the territorial districts of the United States, are not states within the meaning of the constitution, and of the judiciary act, so as to enable a citizen thereof to sue a citizen of one of the states in the federal courts. 2 Cranch, 445; 1 Wheat, 91.

3. By the Act of July 11, 1846, congress retroceded the county of Alexandria, part of the District of Columbia, to the state of Virginia.

DISTRINGAS, remedies. A writ directed to the sheriff, commanding him to distrain one of his goods and chattels, to enforce his compliance of what is required of him, as for his appearance in a court on such a day, and the like. Com. Dig. Process, D 7; Chit. Pr. Index, h. t. Sellon's Pr. Index, h. t.; Tidd's Pr. Index, h. t. 11 East, 353. It is also a form of execution in the action of detinue, and assize of nuisance. Registrum Judiciale, 56; 1 Rawle, 44, 48; Bro. Abr. pl. 26; 22; H. VI. 41. This writ is likewise used to compel the appearance of a corporation agregate. 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4191.

DISTURBANCE, torts. A wrong done to an incorporeal hereditament, by hindering or disquieting the owner in the enjoyment of it. Finch. L. 187; 3 Bl. Com. 235; 1 Swift's Dig. 522; Com. Dig. Action upon the case for a disturbance, Pleader, 3 I 6; 1 Serg. & Rawle, 298.

DIVIDEND. A portion of the principal, or profits, divided among several owners of a thing.

2. The term is usually applied to the division of the profits arising out of bank or other stocks; or to the division, among the creditors, of the elects of an insolvent estate.

3. In another sense, according to some old authorities, it signifies one part of an indenture. T. L.

DIVISIBLE. The susceptibility of being divided.

2. A contract cannot, in general, be divided in such a manner that an action may be brought, or a right accrue, on a part of it. 2 Penna. R. 454. But some contracts are susceptible of division, as when a reversioner sells a part of the reversion to one man, and a part to another, each shall have an action for his share of the rent, which may accrue on a contract, to pay a particular rent to the reversioner. 3 Whart. 404; and see Apportionment. But when it is to do several things, at several times, an action will lie upon every default. 15 Pick. R. 409. See 1 Greenl. R. 316; 6 Mass. 344. See Entire.

DIVISION, Eng. law. A particular and ascertained part of a county. In Lincolnshire, division means what riding does in Yorkshire.

DIVISION OF OPINION. When, in a company or society, the parties having a right to vote are so divided that there is not a plurality of the whole in favor of any particular proposition, or when the voters are equally divided, it is said there. is division of opinion.

2. In such a case, the Roman law, which seems founded in reason and common sense, directs, that when the division relates to the quantity of things included, as in the case of a judgment, if one of three judges votes for condemning a man to a fine of one hundred dollars, another, to one of fifty dollars, and the third to twenty-five, the opinion or vote of; the last shall be the rule for the judgment; because the votes of all the others include that of the lowest; this is the case when unanimity is required. But when the division of opinions does not relate to the quantity of things, then it is always to be in favor of the defendant. It was a rule among the Romans that when the judges were equal in number, and they were divided into two opinions in cases of liberty, that opinion which favored it should prevail; and in other cases, it should be in favor of the defendant. Poth. Pand. liv. L. n. MDLXXIV.

3. When the judges of a court are divided into three classes, each holding a different opinion, that class which has the greatest number shall give the judgment; for example, on a habeas corpus, when a court is composed of four judges, and one is for remanding the prisoner, another is for discharging him on his own recognizance, and two others for discharging him absolutely, the judgment will be, that he be discharged. Rudyard's Case, Bac. Ab. Habeas Corpus, B 10, Court 5.

4. It is provided, by the Act of Congress of April 29, 1802, s. 6, that whenever any question shall occur before a circuit court, upon which the opinions of the judges shall be opposed, the point upon which the disagreement shall happen shall, during the same term, upon the request of either party, or their counsel, be stated, under the direction of the judges, and certified, under the seal of the court, to the supreme court, at their next session to be hold thereafter, and shall, by the said court, be finally decided. And the decision of the supreme court, and their order in the premises, shall be, remitted to the circuit court, and be there entered *of record and shall have effect according to the nature of the said judgment and order: Provided, That nothing herein contained shall prevent the cause from proceeding, if, in the opinion of the court, further proceedings can be had without prejudice to the merits: And Provided, also, That imprisonment shall not be allowed, nor punishment in any case be inflicted, where the judges of the said court are divided in opinion upon the question touching the said imprisonment or punishment. See 5 N. S. 407.

DIVORCE. The dissolution of a marriage contracted between a man and a woman, by the judgment of a court of competent jurisdiction, or by an act of the legislature. It is so called from the diversity of the minds of those who are married; because such as are divorced go each a different way from the other. Ridley's Civ. & Eccl. Law, pp. 11, 112. Until a decree of divorce be actually made, neither party can treat the other as sole, even in cases where the marriage is utterly null and void for some preexisting cause. Griffiths v Smith, D. C. of Philadelphia, 3 Penn. Law Journal, 151, 153. A decree of divorce must also be made during the lifetime of both the parties. After the decease of either the marriage will be deemed as legal in all respects. Reeves" Dom. Rel. 204; 1 Bl. Com. 440. See Act of Pennsylvania, March 13, 1815, 5.

2. Divorces are of two kinds; 1. a vinculo matrimonii, (q. v.) which dissolves and totally severs the marriage tie; and, 2. a mensa et thoro, (q. v.) which merely separates the parties.

3. - 1. The divorce a vinculo was never granted by the ecclesiastical law except for the most grave reasons. These, according to Lord Coke, (Co. Litt. 235, a,) are causa praecontractus, causa metus, causa impotentiae, seu frigiditatis, causa affinitatis, et causa consanguinitatis. In England such a divorce bastardizes the issue, and generally speaking, is allowed only on the ground of some preexisting cause. Reeves' Dom. Rel. 204-5; but sometimes by act of parliament for a supervenient cause. 1 Bl. Com. 440. When the marriage was dissolved for canonical causes of impediment, existing previous to its taking place, it was declared void ab initio.

4. In the United States, divorces a vinculo are granted by the state legislatures for such causes as may be sufficient to induce the members to vote in favor of granting them; and they are granted by the courts to which such jurisdiction is given, for certain causes particularly provided for by law.

5. In some states, the legislature never grants a divorce until after the courts have decreed one, and it is still requisite that the legislature shall act, to make the divorce valid. This is the case in Mississippi. In some states, as Wisconsin, the legislature cannot grant a divorce. Const. art. 4, is. 24.

6. The courts in nearly all the states have power to decree divorces a vinculo, for, first, causes which existed and which were a bar to a lawful marriage, as, precontract, or the existence of a marriage between one of the contracting parties and another person, at the time the marriage sought to be dissolved took place; consanguinity, or that degree of relationship forbidden by law; affinity in some states, as Vermont, Rev. Stat. tit. 16, c. 63, s. 1; impotence, (q. v.) idiocy, lunacy, or other mental imbecility, which renders the party subject to it incapable of making a contract; when the contract was entered into in consequence of fraud. Secondly, the marriage may be dissolved by divorce for causes which have arisen since the formation of the contract, the principal of which are adultery cruelty; wilful and malicious desertion for a period of time specified in the acts of the several states; to these are added, in some states, conviction of felony or other infamous crime; Ark. Rev. Stat. c. 50, s. 1, p. 333; being a fugitive from justice, when charged with an infamous crime. Laws of Lo. Act of April 2, 1832. In Tennessee the hushand may obtain a divorce when the wife was pregnant at the time of marriage with a child of color; and also when the wife refuses for two years to follow her hushand, who has gone bonafide to Tennessee to reside. Act of 1819, c. 20, and Act of 1835, c. 26 Carr. Nich. & Comp. 256, 257. In Kentucky and Maine,, where one of the parties has formed a connexion with certain religionists, whose opinions. and practices are inconsistent with the marriage duties. And, in some states, as Rhode Island and Vermont, for neglect and refusal on the part of the hushand (he being of sufficient ability) to provide necessaries for the subsistence of his wife. In others, habitual drunkenness is a sufficient cause.

7. In some of the states divorces a mensa et thoro are granted for cruelty, desertion, and such like causes, while in others the divorce is a vinculo.

8. When the divorce is prayed for on the ground of adultery, in some and perhaps in most of the states, it is a good defence, 1st. That the other party has been guilty of the same offence. 2. That the hushand has prostituted his wife, or connived at her amours. 3. That the offended party has been reconciled to the other by either express or implied condonation. (q. v.) 4. That there was no intention to commit adultery, as when the party, supposing his or her first hushand or wife dead, married again. 5. That the wife was forced or ravished.

9. The effects of a divorce a vinculo on the property of the wife, are various in the several states. When the divorce is for the adultery or other criminal acts of the hushand, in general the wife's lands are restored to her; when it is caused by the adultery or other criminal act of the wife, the bushand has in general some qualified right of curtesy to her lands; when the divorce is caused by some preexisting cause, as consanguinity, affinity or impotence, in some states, as Maine and Rhode Island, the lands of the wife are restored to her. 1 Hill. Ab. 51, 2. See 2 Ashm. 455; 5 Blackf. 309. At common law, a divorce a vinculo matrimonii bars the wife of dower; Bract. lib. ii. cap. 39, 4; but not a divorce ti mensa et, thoro, though for the crime of adultery. Yet by Stat. West. 1, 3 Ed. I. c. 84, elopement with an adulterer has this effect. Dyer, 195; Co. Litt. 32, a. n. 10; 3 P. Wms. 276, 277. If land be given to a man and his wife, and the heirs of their two bodies begotten, and they are divorced. a vinculo, &c., they shall neither of them have this estate, but he barely tenants for life, notwithstanding the inheritance once vested in them. Co. Litt. 28. If a lease be made to hushand and wife during coverture, and the hushand sows the, land, and afterwards they are divorced a vinculo, &c., the hushand shall have the emblements in that case, for the divorce is the act of law. Mildmay's Case. As to personalty, the rule of the common law is, if one marry a woman who has goods, he may give them or sell them at his pleasure. If they are divorced, the woman shall have the goods back again, unless the hushand has given them away or sold them; for in such case she is without remedy. If the hushand aliened them by collusion, she may aver and prove the collusion, and thereupon recover the goods from the alience. If one be bound in an obligation to a feme sole, and then marry her, and afterwards they are divorced, she may sue her former hushand on the obligation, notwithstanding her action was in suspense during the marriage. And for such things as belonged to the wife before marriage, if they cannot be known, she could sue for, after divorce, only in the court Christian, for the action of account did not lie, because he was not her receiver to account. But for such things as remain in specie, and may be known, the common law gives her an action of detinue. 26 Hen. VIII. 1.

10. When a divorce a vinculo takes place, it is, in general, a bar to dower; but in Connecticut, Illinois, New York, and, it seems, in Michigan, dower is not barred by a divorce for the fault of the hushand. In Kentucky, when a divorce takes place for the fault of the hushand, the wife is entitled as if he were dead. 1 Hill. Ab. 61, 2.

11. - 2. Divorces a mensa et thoro, are a mere separation of the parties for a time for causes arising since the marriage; they are pronounced by tribunals of competent jurisdiction. The effects of the sentence continue for the time it was pronounced, or until the parties are reconciled. A. divorce a mensa et thoro deprives the hushand of no marital right in respect to the property of the wife. Reeve's Dom. Rel. 204-5. Cro. Car. 462; but see 2 S. & R. 493. Children born after a divorce a mensa et thoro are not presumed to be the hushand's, unless he afterwards cohabited with his wife. Bac. Ab. Marriage, &c. E.

12. By the civil law, the child of parents divorced, is to be brought up by the innocent party, at the expence of the guilty party. Ridley's View, part 1, ch. 3, sect. 9, cites 8th Collation. Vide, generally, 1 Bl. Com. 440, 441 3 Bl. Com. 94; 4 Vin. Ab. 205; 1 Bro. Civ. Law, 86; Ayl. Parerg. 225; Com. Dig. Baron and Feme, C;-Coop. Justin. 434, et seq.; 6 Toullier, No. 294, pa. 308; 4 Yeates' Rep. 249; 5 Serg. & R. 375; 9 S. & R. 191, 3; Gospel of Luke, eh, xvi. v. 18; of Mark, ch. x. vs. 11, 12; of Matthew, ch. v. v. 32, ch. xix. v. 9; 1 Corinth. ch. vii. v. 15; Poynt. on Marr. and Divorce, Index, h. t.; Merl. Rep. h. t.; Clef des Lois Rom. h. t. As to the effect of the laws of a foreign state, where the divorce was decreed, see Story's Confl. of Laws, ch. 7, 200. With regard to the ceremony of divorce among. theJews, see 1 Mann. & Gran. 228; C. 39. Eng. C. L. R. 425, 428. And as to divorces among the Romans, see Troplong, de l'Influence du Christianisme sur le Droit Civil des Romains, ch. 6. p. 205.

DOCKET, practice. A formal record of judicial proceedings.

2. The docket should contain the names of the parties, and a minute of every proceeding in the case. It is kept by the clerk or prothonotary of the court. A sheriff's docket is not a record. 9 Serg. & R. 91. Docket is also said to be a brief writing, on a small piece of paper or parchment, containing the substance of a larger writing.

DOCTORS COMMONS. A building in London used for a college of civilians. Here the judge of the court of arches, the judge of the admiralty, and the judge of the court of Canterbury, with other eminent civilians, reside. Commons signifies, in old English, pittance or allowance; because it is meant in common among societies, as Universities, Inns of Courts, Doctors Commons, &c. The Latin word is, demensum a demetiendo; dividing every one his part Minsheu. It is called Doctors Commons, because the persons residing there live in a collegiate commoning together.

DOCUMENTS, evidence. The deeds, agreements, title papers, letters, receipts, and other written instruments used to prove a fact. Among the civilians, by documents is also understood evidence delivered in the forms established by law, of whatever nature such evidence may be, but applied principally to the testimony of witnesses. Savig. Dr. Rom. 165.

2. Public documents are all such records, papers and acts, as are filed in the public offices of the United States or of the several states; as, for example, public statutes, public proclamations, resolutions of the legislature, the journals of either branch of the legislature, diplomatic correspondence communicated by the president to congress, and the like. These are in general evidence of the facts they contain or recite. 1 Greenl. 491.

DOG. A well known domestic animal. In almost all languages this word is, a term or name of contumely or reproach. See 3 Bulst. 226; 2 Mod. 260; 1 Leo. 148; and the title action on the case for defamation in the Digests; Minsheu's Dictionary.

2. A dog is said at common law to have no intrinsic value, and he cannot therefore be the subject of larceny. 4 Bl. Com. 236; 8 Serg. & Rawle, 571. But the owner has such property in him, that he may maintain trespass for an injury to his dog; "for a man may have property in some things which are of so base nature that no felony can be committed of them, as of a bloodhound or mastiff." 12 H. VIII. 3; 18 H. VIII. 2; 7 Co. 18 a; Com. Dig. Biens, F; 2 Bl. Com. 397; Bac. Ab. Trover, D; F. N. B. 86; Bro. Trespass, pl. 407 Hob. 283; Cro. Eliz. 125; Cro. Jac. 463 2 Bl. Rep.

3. Dogs, if dangerous animals, may lawfully be killed, when their ferocity is known to their owner, or in self-defence 13 John. R. 312; 10 John. R. 365; and when bitten by a rabid animal, a dog may be lawfully killed by any one. 13 John. R. 312.

4. When a dog, in consequence of his vicious habits, becomes a common nuisance, the owner may be indicted. And when he commits an injury, if the owner had a knowledge of his mischievous propensity, he is liable to an action on the case. Bull. N. P. 77; 2 Str. 1264; Lord Raym. 110. 1 B. & A. 620; 4 Camp. R. 198; 2 Esp. R. 482; 4 Cowen, 351; 6 S. & R. 36; Addis. R. 215; 1 Scam. 492 23 Wend 354; 17 Wend. 496; 4 Dev. & Batt. 146.

5. A man has a right to keep a dog to guard his premises, but not to put him at the entrance of his house, because a person coming there on lawful business may be injured by him, and this, though there may be another entrance to the house. 4 C. & P. 297; 6 C. & P. 1. But if a dog be chained, and a visitor so incautiously go near him that he is bitten, he has no right of action against the owner. 3 Chit. Bl. 154, n. 7. Vide Animal; Knowledge; Scienter.

DOGMA, civil law. This word is used in the first chapter, first section, of the second Novel, and signifies an ordinance of the senate. See also Dig. 27, 1, 6.

DOLI CAPAX. Capable of deceit, mischief, having knowledge of right and wrong. See Discretion; Criminal law, 2.

DOLLAR, money. A silver coin of the United States of the value of one hundred cents, or tenth part of an eagle.

2. It weighs four hundred and twelve and a half grains. Of one thousand parts, nine hundred are of pure silver and one hundred of alloy. Act of January 18, 1837, ss. 8 & 9, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2523, 4; Wright, R. 162.

3. In all computations at the custom-house, the specie dollar of Sweden and Norway shall be estimated at one hundred and six cents. The specie dollar of Denmark, at one hundred and five cents. Act of May 22, 1846.

DOLUS, civil law. A fraudulent address or trick used to deceive some one; a fraud. Dig. 4, 3, 1; Code, 2, 21.

2. Dolus differs from fault in this, that the latter proceeds from an error of the understanding; while to constitute the former there must be a will or intention to do wrong. Wolff, Inst. 17.

DOMAIN. It signifies sometimes, dominion, territory governed - sometimes, possession, estate - and sometimes, land about the mansion house of a lord. By domain is also understood the right to dispose at our pleasure of what belongs to us.

2. A distinction, has been made between property and domain. The former is said to be that quality which is conceived to be in the thing itself, considered as belonging to such or such person, exclusively of all others. By the latter is understood that right which the owner has of disposing of the thing. Hence domain and property are said to be correlative terms; the one is the active right to dispose, the other a passive quality which follows the thing, and places it at the disposition of the owner. 3 Toull. n. 8 3. But this distinction is too subtle for practical use. Puff. Droit de la Nature et des Gens, loi 4, c. 4, 2. Vide 1 B1. Com. 105, 106; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 456; Clef des Lois Rom. h. t.; Domat, h. t.; 1 Hill. Ab. 24; 2 Hill. Ab. 237; and Demesne as Of fee; Property; Things.

DOME-BOOK, DOOM-BOOK or DOM-BEC A book in which Alfred the Great, of England, after uniting the Saxon heptarchy, collected the various customs dispersed through the kingdom, and digested them into one uniform code. 4 Bl. Com. 411.

DOMESDAY, or DOMESDAY-BOOK. An ancient record made in the time of William the Conqueror, and now remaining in the English exchequer, consisting of two volumes of unequal sizes, containing surveys of the lands in England.

DOMESTICS. Those who reside in the same house with the master they serve the term does not extend to workmen or laborers employed out of doors. 5 Binn. R. 167; Merl. Rep. h. t. The Act of Congress of April 30, 1790, s. 25, uses the word domestic in this sense.

2. Formerly, this word was used to designate those who resided in the house of another, however exalted their station, and who performed services for him. Voltaire, in writing to the French queen, in 1748, says) " Deign to consider, madam, that I am one of the domestics of the king, and consequently yours, lily companions, the gentlemen of the king," &c.

3. Librarians, secretaries, and persons in such honorable employments, would not probably be considered domestics, although they might reside in the house of their respective employers.

4. Pothier, to point out the distinction between a domestic and a servant, gives the following example: A literary man who lives and lodges with you, solely to be your companion, that you may profit by his conversation and learning, is your domestic; for all who live in the same house and eat at the same table with the owner of the house, are his domestics, but they are not servants. On the contrary, your Valet de, chambre, to whom you pay wages, and who sleeps out of your house, is not, properly speaking, your domestic, but your servant. Poth. Proc. Cr. sect. 2, art. 5, 5; Poth. Ob. 710, 828; 9 Toull. n. 314; H. De Pansey, Des Justices de Paix, c. 30, n. 1. Vide Operative; Servant.

DOMICIL. The place where a person has fixed his ordinary dwelling, without a present intention of removal. 10 Mass. 488; 8 Cranch, 278; Ersk. Pr. of Law of Scotl. B. 1, tit. 2, s. 9; Denisart, tit. Domicile, 1, 7, 18, 19; Voet, Pandect, lib. 5, tit. 1, 92, 97; 5 Madd. Ch. R. 379; Merl. Rep. tit. Domicile; 1 Binn. 349, n.; 4 Humph. 346. The law of domicil is of great importance in those countries where the maxim "actor sequitur forum rei" is applied to the full extent. Code Civil, art. 102, &c.; 1 Toullier, 318.

2. A man cannot be without a domicil, for he is not supposed to have abandoned his last domicil until he has acquired a new one. 5 Ves. 587; 3 Robins. 191; 1 Binn. 349, n.; 10 Pick. 77. Though by the Roman law a man might abandon his domicil, and, until be acquired a. new one, he was without a domicil. By fixing his residence at two different places a man may have two domicils at one and the same time; as, for example, if a foreigner, coming to this country, should establish two houses, one in New York and the, other in New Orleans, and pass one-half of the year in each; he would, for most purposes, have two domicils. But it is to be observed that circumstances which might be held sufficient to establish a commercial domicil in time of war, and a matrimonial, or forensic or political domicil in time of peace, might not be such as would establish a principal or testamentary domicil, for there is a wide difference in applying the law of domicil to contracts and to wills. Phill. on Dom. xx; 11 Pick. 410 10 Mass. 488; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 514.

3. There are three kinds of domicils, namely: 1. The domicil of origin. domicilium originis vel naturale. 2. The domicil by operation of law, or necessary domicil. 3. Domicil of choice.

4. - 1. By domicil of origin is understood the home of a man's parents, not the place where, the parents being on a visit or journey, a child happens to be born. 2 B. & P. 231, note; 3 Ves. 198. Domicil of origin is to be distinguished from the accidental place of birth. 1 Binn. 349.

5. - 2. There are two classes of persons who acquire domicil by operation of law. 1st. Those who are under the control of another, and to whom the law gives the domicil of another. Among these are, 1. The wife. 2. The minor. 3. The lunatic, &c. 2d. Those on whom the state affixes a domicil. Among this class are found, 1. The officer. 2. The prisoner, &c.

6. - 1st. Among those who, being under the control of another, acquire such person's domicil, are, 1. The wife. The wife takes the domicil of her hushand, and the widow retains it, unless she voluntarily change it, or unless, she marry a second time, when she takes the domicil of the second hushand. A party may have two domicils, the one actual, the other legal; the hushand's actual and the wife's legal domicil, are, prima facie, one. Addams' Ecc. R. 5, 19. 2. The domicil of the minor is that of the father, or in Case of his death, of the mother. 5 Ves. 787; 2 W. & S. 568; 3 Ohio R. 101; 4 Greenl. R. 47. 3. The domicil of a lunatic is regulated by the same principles which operated in cases of minors the domicil of such a person may be changed by the direction, or with the assent of the guardian, express or implied. 5 Pick. 20.

7. - 2d. The law affixes a domicil. 1. Public officers, such as the president of the United States, the secretaries and such other officers whose public duties require a temporary residence at the capital, retain their domicils. Ambassadors preserve the domicils which they have in their respective countries, and this privilege extends to the ambassador's family. Officers, soldiers, and marines, in the service of the United States, do not lose their domicils while thus employed. 2. A prisoner does not acquire a domicil where the prison is, nor lose his old. 1 Milw. R. 191, 2.

8. - 3. The domicil of origin, which has already been explained, remains until another has been acquired. In order to change such domicil; there must be an actual removal with an intention to reside in the place to which the party removes. 3 Wash. C. C. R. 546. A mere intention to remove, unless such intention is carried into effect, is not sufficient. 5 Greenl. R. 143. When he changes it, he acquires a domicil in the. place of his new residence, and loses his original domicil. But upon a return with an intention to reside, his original domicil is restored. 3 Rawle, 312; 1 Gallis. 274, 284; 5 Rob. Adm. R. 99.

9. How far a settlement in a foreign country will impress a hostile character on a merchant, see Chitty's Law of Nations, 31 to 50; 1 Kent, Com. 74 to 80; 13 L. R. 296; 8 Cranch, 363; 7 Cranch, 506; 2 Cranch, 64 9 Cranch, 191; 1 Wheat. 46; 2 Wheat 76; 3 Wheat. 1 4 2 Gall. R. 268; 2 Pet. Adm. Dec. 438 1 Gall. R. 274. As to its effect in the administration of the assets of a deceased non-resident, see 3 Rawle's R. 312; 3 Pick. R. 128; 2 Kent, Com. 348; 10 Pick. R. 77. The law of Louisiana relating to the "domicil and the manner of changing the same" will be found in the Civil Code of Louisiana, tit. 2, art. 42 to 49. See, also, 8 M. R. 709; 4 N. S. 51; 6 N. S. 467; 2 L. R. 35; 4 L. R. 69; 5 N. S. 385 5 L. R. 332; 8 L. R. 315; 13 L. R. 297 11 L. R. 178; 12 L. R. 190. See, on the subject generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. 2 Bos. & Pul. 230, note 1 Mason's Rep. 411; Toullier, Droit Civil Francais, liv. 1, tit. 3, n., 362 a 378; Domat, tome 2, liv. 1, s. 3; Pothier, Introduction Generale aux Coutumes, n. 8 a 20; 1 Ashm. R. 126; Merl. Rep. tit. Domicile 3 Meriv. R. 79; 5 Ves. 786; 1 Crompt. & J. 151; 1 Tyrwh. R. 91; 2 Tyrwh. R. 475; 2 Crompt. & J. 436 3 Wheat. 14 3 Rawle, 312; 7 Cranch, 506 9 Cranch, 388; 5 Pick. 20; 1 Gallis, 274, 545; 10 Mass. 488 11 Mass. 424; 13 Mass. 501 2 Greenl. 411; 3 Greenl 229, 354; 4 Greenl. 47; 8 Greenl. 203; 5 Greenl. 143; 4 Mason, 308; 3 Wash. C. C. R. 546; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 514 4 Wend, 602; 8 Wend. 134; 5 Pick. 370 10 Pick. 77; 11 Pick. 410; 1 Binn. 349, n.; Phil. on Dom. passim.

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