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FORUM. This term signifies jurisdiction, a court of justice, a tribunal.

2. The French divide it into for exterieur, which is the authority which human justice exercises on persons and property, to a greater or lesser extent, according to the quality of those to whom it is entrusted; and for interieur, which is the moral sense of justice which a correct conscience dictates. Merlin, Repert. mot For.

3. By forum res sitae is meant the tribunal which has authority to decide respecting something in dispute, located within its jurisdiction; therefore, if the matter in controversy is land, or other immovable property, the judgment pronounced in the forum res sitae is held to be of universal obligation, as to all matters of right and title on which it professes to decide, in relation to such property. And the same principle applies to all other cases of proceedings in rem, where the subject is movable property, within the jurisdiction of the court pronouncing the judgment. Story, Const. Laws, 532, 545, 551, 591, 592; Kaims on Eq. B. 3, c. 8, s. 4 1 Greenl. Ev. 541.

FORWARDING MERCHANT, contracts. A person who receives and forwards goods, taking upon himself the expenses of transportation, for which he receives a compensation from the owners, but who has no concern in the vessels or wagons by which they are transported, and no interest in the freight. Such an one is Dot deemed a common carrier, but a mere warehouseman or agent. 12 Johns. 232; 7 Cowen's R. 497. He is required to use only ordinary diligence in sending the property by responsible persons. 2 Cowen's R. 593.

FOSSA, Eng. law. A ditch full of water, where formerly women who had committed a felony were drowned; the grave. Cowel, Int.

FOUNDATION. This word, in the English law, is taken in two senses, fundatio incipiens, and fundatio perficiens. As to its political capacity, an act of incorporation is metaphorically called its foundation but as to its dotation, the first gift of revenues is called the foundation. 10 Co. 23, a.

FOUNDLING. A new-born child, abandoned by, its parents, who are unknown. The settlement of, such a child is in the place where found.

FOURCHER, English law. A French word, which means to fork. Formerly, when an action was brought against two, who, being jointly concerned, mere not bound to answer till both appeared, and they agreed not to appear both in one day; the appearance of one, excused the other's default, who had a day given him to appear with the other: the defaulter, on the day appointed, appeared; but the first then made default; in this wanner they forked each other, and practiced this for delay. Vide 2 Inst. 250; Booth, R. A. 16.

FRACTION. A part of any thing broken. A combination of numbers, in arithmetic and algebra, representing one or more parts of a unit or integer. Thus, four-fifths is a fraction, formed by dividing a unit into-five equal parts, and taking one part four times. In law, the term fraction is usually applied to the division of a day.

2. In general, there are no fractions in days. Co. Litt. 225 2 Salk. 625; 2 P. A. Browne, 18; II Mass. 204. But in some cases a fraction will be taken into the account, in order to secure a party his rights; 3 Chit. Pr. 111; 8 Ves. 80 4 Campb. R. 197; 2 B. & Ald. 586; Savig. Dr. Rom. 182; Rob. Dig. of Engl. Statutes in force in Pennsylvania, 431-2 and when it is required by a special law. Vide article Date.

FRANC, com. law. The name of a French coin. Five franc pieces, when not of less fineness than ten ounces and sixteen pennyweights in twelve ounces troy weight of standard silver, and weighing not less than three hundred and eighty-four grains each, are made a legal tender, at the rate of ninety-three cents each. Act of June 25, 1834, s. 1, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2373.

2. In all computations at the custom house, the franc of France and of Belgium shall be estimated at eighteen cents six. mills. Act of May 22, 1846. See Foreign coins.

FRANCHISE. This word has several significations: 1. It is a right reserved to the people by the constitution; hence we say, the elective franchise, to designate the right of the people to elect their officers. 2. It is a certain privilege, conferred by grant from the government, and Vested in individuals.

2. Corporations, or bodies politic, are the most usual franchises known to our law. They have been classed among incorporeal hereditaments, perhaps improperly, as they have no inheritable quality.

3. In England, franchises are very numerous; they, are said to be royal privileges in the hands of a subject. Vide 3 Kent, Com. 366; 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1686; Cruise,' Dig. tit. 27; 2 Bl. Com. 37; 15 Serg. & Rawle, 130; Finch, 164.

FRANCIGENA. Formerly, in England, every alien was known by this name, as Franks is the generic name of foreigners in the Turkish dominions.

FRANK. The privilege of sending and receiving letters, through the mails, free of postage.

2. This privilege is granted to various officers, not for their own special benefit, but with a view to promote the public good.

3. The Act of the 3d of March, 1845, s. 1, enacts, That members of congress, and delegates from the territories, may receive letters, not exceeding two ounces in weight, free of postage, during the recess of congress; and the same privilege is extended to the vice-president of the United States.

4. It is enacted, by 3d section, That all printed or lithographed circulars and handbills, or advertisements, printed or lithographed, on quarto post or single cap paper, or paper not larger than single cap, folded, directed, and unsealed, shall be charged with postage, at the rate of two cents for each sheet, and no more, whatever be the distance the same may be sent; and all pamphlets, magazines, periodicals, and every other kind and description of printed or other matter, (except newspapers,) which shall be unconnected with any manuscript communication whatever, and which it is or may be lawful to transmit by the mail of the United States, shall be charged with postage, at the rate of two and a balf cents for each copy sent, of no greater weight than one ounce, and one cent additional shall be charged for each additional ounce of the weight of every such pamphlet, magazine, matter, or thing, which may be transmitted through the mail, whatever be the distance the tame may be transported and any fractional excess, of not less than one-half of an ounce, in the weight of any such matter or thing, above one or more ounces, shall be charged for as if said excess amounted to a full ounce.

5. And, by the 8th section, That each member of the senate, each member of the house of representatives, and each delegate from a territory of the United States, the secretary of the senate, and the clerk of the house, of representatives, may, during each session of congress, and for a period of thirty days before the commencement, and thirty days after the end of each and every session of congress, Bend and receive through the mail, free of postage, any letter, newspaper, or packet, not exceeding two ounces in weight; and all postage charged upon any letters, packages, petitions memorials, or other matters or things, received during any session of congress, by any senator, member, or delegate of the house of representatives, touching his official or legislative duties, by reason of any excess of weight, above two ounces, on the matter or thing so received, shall be paid out of the contingent fund of the house of which the person receiving the same may be a member. And they shall have the right to frank written letters from themselves during the whole year, as now authorized by law.

6. The 5th section repeals all acts, and parts of acts, granting or conferring upon any person whatsoever the franking privilege.

7. The 23d section enacts, That nothing in this act contained shall be construed to repeal the laws granting the franking privilege to the president of the United States when inoffice, and to all ex-presidents, and the widows of the former presidents, Madison and Harrison.

8. The Act of March 1, 1847, enacts as follows

3. That all members of Congress, delegates from territories, the vice-president of the United States, the secretary of the senate, and the clerk of the house of representatives, shall have the power to send and receive public documents free of postage during their term of office; and that the said members and delegates shall have the power to send and receive public documents, free of Postage, up to the first Monday of December following the expiration of their term of office.

4. That the secretary of the senate and clerk of the house of representatives shall have the power to receive, as well as to send, all letters and packages, not weighing over two ounces, free of postage, during their term of office.

5. That members of congress shall have the power to receive, as well as to send, all letters and packages, not weighing over two ounces, free of postage, up to the first Monday in December following the expiration of their term of office.

FRANK, FREE. This word is used in composition, as frank-almoign, frank-marriage, frank-tenement, &c.

FRANK-ALMOIGN, old English law. This is a French law word, signifying free-alms.

2. Formerly religious corporations, aggregate or sole, held lands of the donor, to them and their successors forever, in frank almoign. The service which they, were bound to render for these lands was not certainly defined; they were, in general, to pray for the souls of the donor; his ancestors, and successors. 2 Bl. Com. 101.

FRANK-MARRIAGE, English law. It takes place, according to Blackstone, when lands are given by one man to another, together with a wife who is daughter or kinswoman of the donor, to hold in frank-marriage. By this gift, though nothing but, the word frank-marriage is expressed, the donees shall have the tenements to them and the heirs of their two bodies begotten that is, they are tenants in special tail. It is called frank or free marriage, because the donees are liable to no service but fealty. This is now obsolete, even in England. 2 Bl. Com. 115.

FRANK-TENEMENT, estates. Same as freehold, (q. v.) or liberum tenementum.

FRATER. A brother. Vide Brother.

FRATRICIDE, criminal law. He who kills his brother or sister. The crime of such a person is also called fratricide.

FRAUD, TO DEFRAUD, torts. Unlawfully, designedly, and knowingly, to appropriate the property of another, without a criminal intent.

2. Illustrations. 1. Every appropriation of the right of property of another is not fraud. It must be unlawful; that is to say, such an appropriation as is not permitted by law. Property loaned may, during the time of the loan, be appropriated to the use of the borrower. This is not fraud, because it is permitted by law. 2. The appropriation must be not only unlawful, but it must be made with a knowledge that the property belongs to another, and with a design to deprive him of the same. It is unlawful to take the property of another; but if it be done with a design of preserving it for the owners, or if it be taken by mistake, it is not done designedly or knowingly, and, therefore, does not come within the definition of fraud. 3. Every species of unlawful appropriation, not made with a criminal intent, enters into this definition, when designedly made, with a knowledge that the property is another's; therefore, such an appropriation, intended either for the use of another, or for the benefit of the offender himself, is comprehended by the term. 4. Fraud, however immoral or illegal, is not in itself a crime or offence, for want of a criminal intent. It only becomes such in the cases provided by law. Liv. System of Penal Law, 789.

FRAUD, contracts, torts. Any trick or artifice employed by one person to induce another to fall into an error, or to detain him in it, so that he may make an agreement contrary to his interest. The fraud may consist either, first, in the misrepresentation, or, secondly, in the concealment of a material fact. Fraud, force and vexation, are odious in law. Booth, Real Actions, 250. Fraud gives no action, however, without damage; 3 T. R. 56; and in matters of contract it is merely a defence; it cannot in any case constitute a new contract. 7 Vez. 211; 2 Miles' Rep. 229. It is essentially ad hominem. 4 T. R. 337-8.

2. Fraud avoids a contract, ab initio, both at law and in equity, whether the object be to deceive the public, or third persons, or one party endeavor thereby to cheat the other. 1 Fonb. Tr. Equity, 3d ed. 66, note; 6th ed. 122, and notes; Newl. Cont. 352; 1 Bl. R. 465; Dougl. Rep. 450; 3 Burr. Rep. 1909; 3 V. & B. Rep. 42; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 155, 806, 698; 1 Sch. & Lef. 209; Verpl. Contracts, passim; Domat, Lois Civ. p. 1, 1. 4, t. 6, s. 8, n. 2.

3. The following enumeration of frauds, for which equity will grant relief, is given by Lord Hardwicke, 2 Ves. 155. 1. Fraud, dolus malus, may be actual, arising from facts and circumstances of imposition, which is the plainest case. 2. It may be apparent from the intrinsic nature and subject of the bargain itself; such as no man in his senses, and not under delusion, would make on the one hand, and such as no honest and fair man would accept on the other, which are inequitable and unconscientious bargains. 1 Lev. R. 111. 3. Fraud, which may be presumed from the circumstances and condition of the parties contracting. 4. Fraud, which may be collected and inferred in the consideration of a court of equity, from the nature and circumstances of the transaction, as being an imposition and deceit on other persons, not parties to the fraudulent agreement. 5. Fraud, in what are called catching bargains, (q. v.) with heirs, reversioners) or expectants on the life of the parents. This last seems to fall, naturally, under one or more of the preceding divisions.

4. Frauds may be also divided into actual or positive and constructive frauds.

5. An actual or positive fraud is the intentional and successful employment of any cunning, deception, or artifice, used to circumvent, cheat, or deceive another. 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 186; Dig. 4, 3, 1, 2; Id. 2, 14, 7, 9.

6. By constructive fraud is meant such a contract or act, which, though not originating in any actual evil design or contrivance to perpetrate a positive fraud or injury upon other persons, yet, by its tendency to deceive or mislead. them, or to violate private or public confidence, or to impair or injure the public interests, is deemed equally reprehensible with positive fraud, and, therefore, is prohibited by law, as within the same reason and mischief as contracts and acts done malo animo. Constructive frauds are such as are either against public policy, in violation of some special confidence or trust, or operate substantially as a fraud upon private right's, interests, duties, or intentions of third persons; or unconscientiously compromit, or injuriously affect, the private interests, rights or duties of the parties themselves. 1 Story, Eq. ch. 7, 258 to 440.

7. The civilians divide frauds into positive, which consists in doing one's self, or causing another to do, such things as induce a belief of the truth of what does not exist or negative, which consists in doing or dis-simulating certain things, in order to induce the opposite party. into error, or to retain him there. The intention to deceive, which is the characteristic of fraud, is here present. Fraud is also divided into that which has induced the contract, dolus dans causum contractui, and incidental or accidental fraud. The former is that which has been the cause or determining motive of the contract, that without which the party defrauded would not have contracted, when the artifices practised by one of the parties have been such that it is evident, without them, the other would not have contracted. Incidental or accidental fraud is that by which a person, otherwise determined to contract, is deceived on some accessories or incidents of the contract; for example, as to the quality of the object of the contract, or its price, so that he has made a bad bargain. Accidental fraud does not, according to the civilians, avoid the contract, but simply subjects the party to damages. It is otherwise where the fraud has been the determining cause of the contract, qui causam dedit contractui; in that case. the contract is void. Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. Liv. 3, t. 3, c. 2, n. 5, n. 86, et seq. See also 1 Malleville, Analyse de la, Discusssion de Code Civil, pp. 15, 16; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t. Vide Catching bargain; Lesion; Voluntary Conveyance.

FRAUDS, STATUTE OF. The name commonly given to the statate 29 Car. II., c. 3, entitled " An act for prevention of frauds and perjuries." This statute has been re-enacted in most. of the states of the Union, generally with omissions, amendments, or alterations. When the words of the statute have been used, the construction put upon them has also been adopted. Most of the acts of the different states will be found in Anthon's Appendix to Shep. Touchst. See also the Appendix to the second edition of Roberts on Frauds.

FRAUDULENT CONVEYANCE. A conveyance of property without any consideration of value, for the purpose of delaying or bindering creditors. These are declared void by the statutes 13 Eliz. c. 6, and 27 Eliz. c. 4, the principles of which have been adopted in perhaps all the states of the American Union. See Voluntary Conveyance.

2. But although such conveyance is void as regards purchasers and creditors, it is valid as between the parties. 6 Watts, 429, 453; 5 Binn. 109; 1 Yeates, 291; 3 W. & S. 255; 4 Iredell, 102; 9 Pick. 93; 20 Pick. 247; 3 Mass. 573, 580; 4 Mass. 354; 1 Hamm. 469; 2 South. 738; 2 Hill, S. C. Rep. 488; 7 John. 161; 1 Bl. 262.

FREE. Not bound to servitude; at liberty to act as one pleases. This word is put in opposition to slave.

2. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states, which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. Const. U. S. art. 1, s. 2. 3. It is also put in contradistinction to being bound as an apprentice; as, an apprentice becomes free on attaining the age of twenty-one years.

4. The Declaration of Independence asserts that all men are born free, and in at sense, the term includes all mankind.

FREE COURSE, Mar. law. Having the wind from a favorable quarter.

2. To prevent collision of vessels, it is the duty of the vessel having a free course to give way to a vessel beating up. to windward and tacking. 3 Hagg. Adm. R. 215, 326. And at sea, it is the duty of such vessel, in meeting another, to go to leeward. 3 Car. & P. 528. See 9 Car. & P. W. Rob. 225; 2 Dodson, 87.

FREE ships. By this is understood neutral vessels. Free ships are sometimes considered as making free goods.

FREE WARREN, Eng. law. A franchise erected for the preservation and custody of beasts and fowls of warren. 2 Bl. Com. 39; Co. Litt. 233.

FREEDMEN. The name formerly given by the Romans to those persons who had been released from a State of servitude. Vide Liberti libertini.

FREEDOM, Liberty; the right to do what is not forbidden by law. Freedom does not preclude the idea of subjection to law; indeed, it presupposes the existence of some legislative provision, the observance of which insures freedom to us, by securing the like observance from others. 2 Har. Cond. L. R. 208.

FREEHOLD, estates. An estate of freehold is an estate in lands or other real property, held by a free tenure, for the life of the tenant or that of some other person; or for some uneertain period. It is called liberum tenementum, frank tenement or freehold; it was formerly described to be such an estate as could only be created by livery of seisin, a ceremony similar to the investiture of the feudal law. But since the introduction of certain modern conveyances, by which an estate of freehold may be created without livery of seisin, this description is not sufficient.

2. There are two qualities essentially requisite to the existence of a freehold estate. 1. Iramobility; that is, the subject-matter must either be land, or some interest issuing out of or annexed to land. 2. A sufficient legal indeterminate duration; for if the utmost period of time to which an estate can last, is fixed and determined, it is not an estate of freehold. For example, if lands are conveyed to a man and his heirs, or for his life, or for the life of another, or until he shall be married, or go to Europe, he has an estate of freehold; but if such lands are limited to a man for one hundred or five hundred years, if he shall so long live, he has not an estate of freehold. Cruise on Real Property t. 1, s. 13, 14 and 15 Litt. 59; 1 Inst. 42, a; 5 Mass. R. 419; 4 Kent, Com. 23; 2 Bouv. Inst. 1690, et seq. Freehold estates are of inheritance or not of inheritance. Cruise, t. 1, s. 42.

FREEHOLDER. A person who is the owner of a freehold estate.

FREEMAN. One who is in the enjoyment of the right to do whatever he pleases, not forbidden by law. One in the possession of the civil rights enjoyed by, the people generally. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 164. See 6 Watts, 556:

FREIGHT, mar. law, contracts. The sum agreed on for the hire of a ship, entirely or in part, for the carriage of goods from one port to another; l3 East, 300, note; but in, its more extensive sense it is applied to all rewards or compensation paid for the use of ships. 1 Pet. Adm. R. 206; 2 Boulay-Paty, t. 8, s. 1; 2 B. & P. 321; 4 Dall. R. 459; 3 Johns. R. 335; 2 Johns. R. 346; 3 Pardess, n. 705.

2. It will be proper to consider 1. How the amount of freight is to be fixed. 2. What acts must be done in order to be entitled to freight. 3. Of the lien of the master or owner.

3. - l. The amount of freight is usually fixed by the agreement of the parties, and if there be no agreement, the amount is to be ascertained by the usage of the trade, and the circumstances and reason of the case. 3. Kent, Com. 173. Pothier is of opinion that when the parties agree as to the conveyance of the goods, without fixing a price, the master is entitled to freight at the price usually paid for merchandise of a like quality at the time and place of shipment, and if the prices vary he is to pay the mean price. Charte-part, n. 8. But there is a case which authorizes the master to require the highest price, namelly, when goods are put on board without his knowledge. Id. n. 9. When the merchant hires the whole ship for the entire voyage, he must pay the freight though he does not fully lade the ship; he is of course only bound to pay in proportion to the goods he puts on board, when he does not agree to provide a full cargo. If the merchant agrees to furnish a return cargo, and he furnishes none, and lets the ship return in ballast, he must make compensation to the amount of the freight; this is called dead freight, (q. v.) in contradistinction to freight due for the actual carriage of goods. Roccus, note 72-75; 1 Pet. Adm. R. 207; 10 East, 530; 2 Vern. R. 210.

4. - 2. The general rule is, that the delivery of the goods at the place of destination, in fulfilment of the agreement of the charter party, is required, to entitle the master or owner of the vessel to freight. But to this rule there are several exceptions .

5.- 1. When a cargo consists of live stock, and some of the animals die in the course of the voyage, without any fault or negligence of the master or crew, and there is no express agreement respecting the payment of freight, it is in general to be paid for all that were put on board; but when the contract is to pay for the, transportation of them, then no freight is due for those which die on the voyage. Molloy, b. 2, c. 4, s. 8 Dig. 14, 2, 10; Abb. Ship. 272.

6.-2. An interruption of the regular course of the voyage, happening without the fault of the owner, does not deprive him of his freight if the ship afterwards proceed with the cargo to the place of destination, as in the case of capture and recapture. 3 Rob. Adm. R. 101.

7. - 3. When the ship is foreed into a port short of her destination, and cannot finish the voyage, if the owner of the goods will not allow the master a reasonable time to repair, or to proceed in another ship, the master will be entitled to the whole freight; and, if after giving his consent the master refuse to go on, he is not entitled to freight.

8. - 4. When the merchant accepts of the goods at an intermediate port, it is the general rule of marine law, that freight is to be paid according to the proportion of the voyage performed, and the law will imply such contract. The acceptance must be voluntary, and not, one forced upon the owner by any illegal or violent proceedings, as, from it, the law implies a contract that freight pro rata parte itineris shall be accepted and paid. 2 Burr. 883; 7 T. R. 381; Abb. Shipp. part 3, c. 7, s. 13; 3 Binn. 445; 5 Binn. 525; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 229; 1 W. C. C. R. 530; 2 Johns. R. 323; 7 Cranch, R. 358; 6 Cowen, R. 504; Marsh. Ins. 281, 691; 3 Kent, Com. 182; Com. Dig. Merchant, E 3 a note, pl. 43, and the cases there cited.

9. - 5. When the ship has performed the whole voyage, and has brought only a part-of her cargo to the place of destination; in this case there is a difference between a general ship, and a ship chartered for a specific sum for the whole voyage. In the former case, the freight is to be paid for the goods which may be, delivered at their place of destination; in the latter it has been questioned whether the freight could be apportioned, and it seems, that in such case a partial performance is not sufficient, and that a special payment cannot be claimed except in special cases. 1 Johns. R. 24; 1 Bulstr. 167; 7 T. R. 381; 2 Campb. N. P. R. 466. These are some of the excep tions to the general rule, called for by principles of equity, that a partial performance is not sufficient, and that a partial payment or rateable freight cannot be claimed.

10. - 6. In general, the master has a lien on the goods, and need not part with them until the freight is paid; and when the regulations of the revenue require them to be landed in a public warehouse, the master may enter them in his own name and preserve the lien. His right to retain the goods may, however, be waived either by an express agreement at the time of making the original contract, or by his subsequent agreement or consent. Vide 18 Johns. R. 157; 4 Cowen, R. 470; 1 Paine's R. 358; 5 Binn. R. 392. Vide, generally, 13 Vin. Ab. 501 Com. Dig. Merchant, E 3, a; Bac. Ab. Merchant, D; Marsh. Ins. 91; 10 East, 394 13 East, 300, n.; 3 Kent, Com. 173; 2 Bro. Civ. & Adm. L. 190; Merl. Rep. h. t. Poth. Charte-Partie, h. t.; Boulay-Paty, h. t.; Pardess. Index, Affretement.

FREIGHTER, contracts. He to whom a ship or vessel has been hired. 3 Kent, Com. 173; 3 Pardess. n. 704.

2. The freighter is entitled to the enjoyment of the vessel according to contract, and the vessel hired is the only one that he is bound to take there can, therefore, be no substitution without his consent. When the vessel has been chartered only in part, the freighter is only entitled to the space he has contracted for; and in case of his occupying more room or putting on board a greater weight, he must pay freight on the principles mentioned under the article of freight.

3. The freighter is required to use the vessel agreeably to the provisions of the charter party, or, in the absence of any such provisions, according to the usages of trade he cannot load the vessel with merchandise which would render it liable to condemnation for violating the laws of a foreign state. 3 John. R. 105. The freighter is also required to return the vessel as soon as the time for which he chartered her has expired, and to pay the freight.

FRESH PURSUIT. The act of pursuing cattle which have escaped, or are being driven away from land, when they were liable to be distrained, into other places. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2470.

FRESH SUIT, Eng. law. An earnest pursuit of the offender when a robbery has been committed, Without ceasing, until he has been arrested or discovered. Towl. Law Dict. h. t.

FRIBUSCULUM, civil law. A slight dissension between hushand and wife, which produced a momentary separation, without any intention to dissolve the marriage, in which it differed from a divorce. Poth. Pand. lib. 50, s. 106. Vicat, Vocab. This amounted to a separation, (q. v.) in our law.

FRIENDLESS MAN. This name was sometimes anciently given to an outlaw.

FRIGIDITY, med juris. The same as impotence. (q. v.)

FRUCTUS INDUSTRIALES. The fruits or produce of the earth which are obtained by the industry of man, as growing corn.

FRUIT, property. The produce of tree or plant containing the seed or used for food. Fruit is considered real estate, before it is separated from the plant or tree on which it grows; after its separation it acquires the character of personally, and may be the subject of larceny; it then has all the qualities of personal property,

2. The term fruit, among the civilians, signifies not only the production of trees and other plants, but all sorts of revenue of whatever kind they may be. Fruits may be distinguished into two kinds; the first called natural fruits, are those which the earth produces without culture, as bay, the production of trees, minerals, and the like or with culture, as grain and the like. Secondly, the other kind of fruits, known by the name of civil fruits, are the revenue which is not produced by the earth, but by the industry of man, or from animals, from some estate, or by virtue of some rule of law. Thus, the rent of a house, a right of fishing, the freight of a ship, the toll of a mill, are called, by a metaphorical expression, fruits. Domat, Lois Civ. liv. 3, tit. 5, s. 3, n. 3. See Poth. De la Communaute, n. 45.

FUERO JURGO. A Spanish code of laws, said to, be the most ancient in Europe. Barr. on the Stat. 8, note.

FUGAM FECIT, Eng. law. He fled. This phrase, in an inquisition, signifies that a person fled for treason or felony. The effect of this is to make the party forfeit his goods absolutely, and the profits of his lands until he has been pardoned or acquitted.

FUGITIVE. A runaway, one who is at liberty, and endeavors, by, going away, to escape.

FUGITIVE SLAVE. One who has escaped from the service of his master.

2. The Constitution of the United States, art. 4, s. 2, 3, directs that "no person held to service or labor in one state, under the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any laws or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor, but shall be delivered up, on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be clue." In practice summary ministerial proceedings are adopted, and not the ordinary course of judicial investigations, to ascertain whether the claim of ownership be established beyond all legal controversy. Vide, generally, 3 Story, Com. on Const. 1804-1806; Serg. on Const. ch. 31, p. 387; 9 John. R. 62; 5 Serg. & Rawle, 62; 2 Pick. R. 11; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 306; 3 Id. 4; 1 Wash. C. C. R. 500; 14 Wend. R. 507, 539; 18 Wend. R. 678; 22 Amer. Jur. 344.

FUGITIVE, FROM JUSTICE, crim. law. One who, having committed a crime within a jurisdiction, goes into another in order to evade the law, and avoid its punishment.

2. By the Constitution of the United States, art. 4, s. 2, it is provided, that "a person charged in any state with treason, felony or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority of the same state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime." The act of thus delivering up a prisoner, is, by the law of nations, called extradition. (q. v.)

3. Different opinions are entertained in relation to the duty of a nation, by the law of nations, independently of any treaty stipulations, to surrender fugitives from justice when' properly demanded. Vide 1 Kent, Com. 36; 4 John. C. R. 106; 1 Amer. Jurist, 297; 10 Serg. & Rawle, 125; 3 Story, Com. Const. United States, 1801; 9 Wend. R. 218; 2 John. R. 479; 6 Binn. R. 617; 4 Johns. Ch. R. 113; 22 Am. Jur. 351: 24 Am. Jur. 226; 14 Pet. R. 540; 2 Caines, R. 213.

4. Before the executive of the state can be called upon to deliver an individual, it must appear, first, that a proper and formal requisition of another governor has been made; secondly, that the requisition was founded upon an affidavit that the crime was committed by the person charged, or such other evidence of that fact as may be sufficient; thirdly, that the person against whom it is directed, is a fugitive from justice. 6 Law Report, 57.

FULL AGE. A. person is said to have full age at twenty-one years, whether the person be a man or woman. See Age.

FULL COURT. When all the judges are present and properly organized, it -is said there is a full court; a court in banc.

FULL DEFENCE, pleading. A denial of all wrong or injury. It is expressed in the following formula: And the said C D, (the defendant,) by E F, his attorney, comes, and defends the wrong or injury, (or force and injury,) when and where it shall behoove him, and the damages and whatsoever else he ought to defend." Bac. Ab. Pleas, &c. D; Co. Litt. 127 b; Lawes on Pl. 89; 2 Chit. Pl. 409; 2 Saund. 209 c; Gould on Pl. c. 2, 6. See Defence; Et Cetera; Half Defence.

FUNCTION, office. Properly, the occupation of an office; by the performance of its duties, the officer is said to fill his function. Dig. lib. 32, 1. 65, 1.

FUNCTIONARY. One who is in office or in some public employment.

FUNCTUS OFFICIO. This term is applied to something which once had life and power, but which now has no virtue whatsoever; as, for example, a warrant of attorney on which a judgment has been entered, is, functus officio, and a second judgment, cannot be entered by virtue of its authority. When arbitrators cannot agree and choose an umpire, they are said to be functi officio. Watts. on Arb. 94. If a bill of exchange be sent to the drawee, and he passes it to the credit of the holder, it is functus officio, and cannot be further negotiated. 5 Pick., 85. When an agent has completed the business with which he was entrusted,.his agency is functus officio. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1382.

FUNDAMENTAL. This word is applied to those laws which are the foundation of society. Those laws by which the exercise of power is restrained and regulated, are fundamental. The Constitution of the United States is the fundamental law of the land. See Wolff, Inst. Nat. 984.

FUNDED DEBT. That part of the national debt for which certain funds are appropriated towards the payment of the interest.

FUNDING SYSTEM, Eng. law. The name given to a plan which provides that on the creation of a public loan, funds shall immediately be formed, and secured by law, for the payment of the interest, until the state shall redeem the whole, and also for the gradual redemption of the capital itself. This gradual redemption of the capital is called the sinking of the debt, and the fund so appropriated is called the sinking fund.

FUNDS. Cash on hands; as, A B is in funds to pay my bill on him; stocks, as, A B has $1000 in the funds. By public funds is understood, the taxes, customs, &c . appropriated by the, government for the discharge of its obligations.

FUNDUS, civil raw. Any portion of land whatever, without considering the use or employ to which it is applied.

FUNERAL EXPENSES. Money expended in procuring the interment of a corpse.

2. The person who orders the funeral is responsible personally for the expenses, and if the estate of the deceased should be insolvent, he must lose the amount. But if there are assets sufficient to pay these expenses, the executor or administrator is bound, upon an implied assumpsit, to pay them. 1 Campb. N. P. R. 298; Holt, 309 Com. on Contr. 529; 1 Hawke's R. 394; 13 Vin. Ab. 563.

3. Frequent questions arise as to the amount which is to be allowed to the executor or administrator for such expenses. It is exceedingly difficult to gather from the numerous cases which have been, decided upon this subject, any certain rule. Courts of equity have taken into consideration the circumstances of each case, and when the executors have acted with common prudence and in obedience to the will, their expenses have been allowed. In a case where the testator directed that his remains should be buried at a church thirty miles distant from the place of his death, the sum of sixty pounds sterling was allowed. 3 Atk. 119. In another case, under peculiar circumstances, six hundred pounds were allowed. Preced. in Ch. 29. In a case in Pennsylvania, where the intestate left a considerable estate, and no children, the sum of two hundred and fifty-eight dollars and seventy-five cents was allowed, the greater part of which had been expended in erecting a tombstone over a vault in which the body was interred. 14 Serg. & Rawle, 64.

4. It seems doubtful whether the hushand can call upon the separate personal estate of his wife, to pay her funeral expenses. 6 Madd. R. 90. Vide 2 Bl. Com. 508; Godolph. p. 2 3 Atk. 249 Off. Ex. 174; Bac. Ab. Executors, &c., L 4; Vin. Ab. h. t.

FUNGIBLE. A term used in the civil, French, and Scotch law, it signifies anything whatever, which consists in quantity, and is regulated by number, weight, or measure; such as corn, wine, or money.. Hein. Elem. Pand. Lib. 12, t. 1, 2;.1 Bell's Com. 225, n. 2; Ersk. Pr. Scot. Law, B. 3, t. 1, 7; Poth. Pret de Consomption, No. 25; Dict. de Jurisprudence, mot Fongible Story, Bailm, 284; 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 987, 1098.

FURCA. The gallows. 3 Inst. 58.

FURIOSUS. An insane man; a madman; a lunatic.

2. In general, such a man can make no contract, because he has no capacity or will: Furiosus nullum negotium genere potest, quia non intelligit quod agit. Inst. 3, 20, 8. Indeed, he is considered so incapable of exercising a will, that the law treats him as if he were absent: Furiosi nulla voluntas est. Furiosus absentia loco est. Dig. lib. 1, tit. ult. 1. 40, 1. 124, 1. See Insane; Non compos mentis.

FURLINGUS. A furlong, or a furrow oneeighth part of a mile long. Co. Litt. 5. b.

FURLONG. A measure of length, being forty poles, or one-eighth of a mile. Vide Measures.

FURLOUGH. A permission given in the army and-navy to an officer or private to absent himself for a limited time.

FURNITURE. Personal chattels in the use of a family. By the term household furniture in a will, all personal chattels will pass which may contribute to the use or convenience of the householder, or the ornament of the house; as, plate, linen, china, both useful and ornamental, and pictures. Amb. 610; 1 John. Ch. R. 329, 388; 1 Sim. & Stu. 189; S. C. 3 Russ. Ch. Cas. 301; 2 Williams on Ex. 752; 1 Rop. on Leg. 203-4; 3 Ves. 312, 313.

FURTHER ASSURANCE. This phrase is frequently used in covenants, when a covenantor has granted an estate, and it is supposed some further conveyance may be required. He then enters into a covenant for further assurance, that is, to make any other conveyance which may be lawfully required.

FURTHER HEARING, crim. law, practice. Hearing at another time.

2. Prisoners are frequently committed for further hearing, either when there is not sufficient evidence for a final commitment, or because the magistrate has not time, at the moment, to hear the whole of the evidence. The magistrate is required by law, and by every principle of humanity, to hear the prisoner as soon as possible after a commitment for further hearing; and if he neglect to do so within a reasonable time, he becomes a trespasser. 10 Barn. & Cresw. 28; S. C. 5 Man. & Ry. 53. Fifteen days were held an unreasonable time, unless under special circumstances. 4 Carr. & P. 134; 4 Day, 98; 6 S. & R. 427.

3. In Massachusetts, magistrates may by statute, adjourn the case for ten days. Rev. Laws, 1 3 5, s. 9.

4. It is the practice in England to commit for three days, and then from three days to three days. 1 Chitty's Criminal Law, 74.

FUTURE DEBT. In Scotland this term is applied to a debt which though created is not due, but is to become so at a future day. 1 Bell's Com. 315, 5th ed.

FUTURE STATE, evidence. A state of existence after this life.

2. A witness who does not believe in any future state of existence was formerly inadmissible as a witness. The true test of a witnesses competency, on the ground of his religious principles, is, whether he believes in the existence of a God, who will punish him if he swears falsely; and within this rule are comprehended those who believe future punishments will not be eternal. 2 Watts' & Serg. 263. See the authorities cited under the article Infidel. But it seems now to be settled, that when the witness believes in a God who will reward or punish him, even in this world, he is competent. Willes, 550. Vide Atheist.

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