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IMMIGRATION. The removing into one place from another. It differs from emigration, which is the moving from one place into another. Vide Emigration.

IMMORAL CONSIDERATION. One contrary to good morals, and therefore invalid. See Moral obligation.

IMMORALITY. that which is contra bonos mores. In England, it is not punishable in some cases, at the common law, on, account of the ecclesiastical jurisdictions: e. g. adultery. But except in cases belonging to the ecclesiastical courts, the court of king's bench is the custom morum, and may punish delicto contra bonos mores. 3 Burr. Rep. 1438; 1 Bl. Rep. 94; 2 Strange, 788. In Pennsylvania, and most, if not all the United States, all such cases come under one and the same jurisdiction.

2. Immoral contracts are generally void; an agreement in consideration of future illicit cohabitation between the parties; 3 Burr. 1568; S. C. 1 Bl. Rep. 517; 1 Esp. R. 13; 1 B. & P. 340, 341; an agreement for the value of libelous and immoral pictures, 4 Esp. R. 97; or for printing a libel, 2 Stark. R. 107; or for an immoral wager, Chit. Contr. 156, cannot, therefore, be enforced. For whatever arises from an immoral or illegal consideration, is void: quid turpi ex causa promissum est non valet. Inst. 3, 20, 24.

3. It is a general rule, that whenever an agreement appears to be illegal, immoral, or against public policy, a court of justice leaves the parties where it finds them; when the agreement has been executed, the court will not rescind it; when executory, the count will not help the execution. 4 Ohio R. 419; 4 John. R. 419; 11 John. R. 388; 12 John. R. 306; 19 John. R. 341; 3 Cowen's R. 213; 2 Wils. R. 341.

IMMOVABLES, civil law. Things are movable or immovable. Immovables, res immobiles, are things in general, such as cannot move themselves or be removed from one place to another. But this definition, strictly speaking, is applicable only to such things as are immovable by their own nature, and not to such as are so only by the destination of the law.

>2. There are things immovable by their nature, others by their destination, and others by the objects to which they are applied.

3. - 1. Lands and buildings or other constructions, whether they have their foundations in the soil or not, are immovable by their nature. By the common law, buildings erected on the land are not considered real estate, unless they have been let into, or united to the land, or to substances previously connected therewith. Ferard on Fixt. 2.

4. - 2. Things, which the owner of the land has placed upon it for its service and improvement, are immovables by destination, as seeds, plants, fodder, manure, pigeons in a pigeon-house, bee-hives, and the like. By the common. law, erections with or without a foundation, when made for the purpose of trade, are considered personal estate. 2 Pet. S. C. Rep. 137; 3 Atk. 13; Ambl. 113

5. - 3. A servitude established on real estate, is an instance of an immovable, which is so considered in consequence of the object to which it is applied. Vide Civil Code of Louis. B. 2, t. 1, c. 2, art. 453-463; Poth. Des Choses, 1; Poth. de la Communante, n. 25, et seq; Clef des Lois Romaines, mot Immeubles.

IMMUNITY. An exemption from serving in an office, or performing duties which the law generally requires other citizens to perform. Vide Dig. lib. 50, t. 6; 1 Chit. Cr. L. 821; 4 Har. & M'Hen. 341.

IMMUTABLE. What cannot be removed, what is unchangeable. The laws of God being perfect, are immutable, but no human law can be so considered.

IMPAIRING THE OBLIGATION OF CONTRACTS. The Constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 9, cl. 1, declares that no state shall "pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts."

2. Contracts, when considered in relation to their effects, are executed, that is, by transfer of the possession of the thing contracted for; or they are executory, which gives only a right of action for the subject of the contract. Contracts are also express or implied. The constitution makes no distinction between one class of contracts and the other. 6 Cranch, 135; 7 Cranch, 164. 3. The obligation of a contract here spoken of is a legal, not a mere moral obligation; it is the law which binds the party to perform his undertaking. The obligation does not inhere or subsist in the contract itself, proprio vigore, but in the law appli- cable to the contract. 4 Wheat. R. 197; 12 Wheat. R. 318; and. this law is not the universal law of nations, but it is the law of the state where the contract is made. 12 Wheat. R. 213. Any law which enlarges, abridges, or in any manner changes the intention of the parties, resulting from the stipulations in the contract, necessarily impairs it. 12 Wheat. 256; Id. 327; 3 Wash. C. C. Rep. 319; 8 Wheat. 84; 4 Wheat. 197.

4. The constitution forbids the states to pass any law impairing the obligation of contracts, but there is nothing in that instrument which prohibits Congress from passing such a law. Pet. C. C. R. 322. Vide, generally, Story on the Const. 1368 to 1891 Serg. Const. Law, 356; Rawle on the Const. h. t.; Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; 10 Am. Jur. 273-297.

TO IMPANEL, practice. The writing the names of a jury on a schedule, by the sheriff or other officer lawfully authorized.

IMPARLANCE, pleading and practice. Imparlance, from the French, parler, to speak, or licentia loquendi, in its most general signification, means time given by the court to either party to answer the pleading of his opponent, as either, to plead, reply, rejoin, &c., and is said to be nothing else but the continuance of the cause till a further day. Bac. Abr. Pleas, C. But the more common signification of the term is time to plead. 2 Saund. 1, n. 2; 2 Show. 3 10; Barnes, 346; Lawes, Civ. Pl. 93, 94.

2. Imparlances are of three descriptions: First. A common or general imparlance. Secondly. A special imparlance. Thirdly. A general special imparlance.

3. - 1. A general imparlance is the entry of a general prayer. and allowance of time to plead till the next term, without reserving to the defendant the benefit of any exception; so that, after such an imparlance, the defendant cannot object to the jurisdiction of the court, or plead any matter in abatement. This kind of imparlance is always from one term to another.

4.-2. A special imparlance reserves to the defendant all exception to the writ, bill, or count; and, therefore, after it, the defendant may plead in abatement, though not to the jurisdiction of the court.

5. - 3. A general special imparlance contains a saving of all exceptions whatsoever, so that the defendant, after this, may plead, not only in abatement, but he may also plead a plea which affects the jurisdiction of the court, as privilege. He cannot, however, plead a tender, and that he was always ready to pay, because, by craving time, he admits he is not ready, and so falsifies his plea. Tidd's Pr. 418, 419. The last two kinds of imparlances are, it seems, sometimes from one day to another in the same term. See, in general, Com. Dig Abatement, I 19, 20, 21; 1 Chit. Pl. 420; Bac. Abr. Pleas, C; 14 Vin. Abr. 335; Com. Dig. Pleader, D; 1 Sell. Pr. 265; Doct. Pl. 291; Encycl. de M. D'Alembert, art. Delai (Jurisp.)

IMPEACHMENT, const. law, punishments. Under the constitution and laws of the United States, an impeachment may be described to be a written accusation, by the house of representatives of the United States, to the senate of the United States, against an officer. The presentment, written accusation, is called articles of impeachment.

2. The constitution declares that the house of representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment art. 1, s. 2, cl. 5 and that the senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. Art. 1, s. 3, cl. 6.

3. The persons liable to impeachment are the president, vice-president, and all civil officers of the United States. Art. 2, s. 4. A question arose upon an impeachment before the senate, in 1799, whether a senator was a civil officer of the United States, within the purview of this section of the constitution, and it was decided by the senate, by a vote of fourteen against eleven, that he was not. Senate Journ., January 10th, 1799; Story on Const. 791; Rawle on Const. 213, 214 Serg. Const. Law, 376.

4. The offences for which a guilty officer may be impeached are, treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors. Art. 2, s. 4. The constitution defines the crime of treason. Art. 3, s. 3. Recourse must be had to the common law for a definition of bribery. Not having particularly mentioned what is to be understood by "other high crimes and misdemeanors," resort, it is presumed, must be had to parliamentary practice, and the common law, in order to ascertain what they are. Story, 795.

5. The mode of proceeding, in the institution and trial of impeachments, is as follows: When a person who may be legally impeached has been guilty, or is supposed to have been guilty, of some malversation in office, a resolution is generally brought forward by a member of the house of representatives, either to accuse the party, or for a committee of inquiry. If the committee report adversely to the party accused, they give a statement of the charges, and recommend that he be impeached; when the resolution is adopted by the house, a committee is appointed to impeach the party at the bar of the senate, and to state that the articles of impeachment against him will be exhibited in due time, and made good before the senate, and to demand that the senate take order for the appearance of the party to answer to the impeachment. The house then agree upon the articles of impeachment, and they are presented to the senate by a committee appointed by the house to prosecute the impeachment; the senate then issues process, summoning the party to appear at a given day before them, to answer to the articles. The process is served by the sergeant-at-arms of the senate, and a return is made of it to the senate, under oath. On the return-day of the process, the senate resolves itself into a court of impeacmment, and the senators are sworn to do justice, according to the constitution and laws. The person impeached is called to answer, and either appears or does not appear. If he does not appear, his default is recorded, and the senate may proceed ex parte. If he does appear, either by himself or attorney, the parties are required to form an issue, and a time is then assigned for the trial. The proceedings on the trial are conducted substantially as they are upon common judicial trials. If any debates arise among the senators, they are conducted in secret, and the final decision is given by yeas and nays; but no person can be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the members present. Const. art. 1, s. 2, cl. 6.

6. When the president is tried, the chief justice shall preside. The judgment, in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States. Proceedings on impeachments under the state constitutions are somewhat similar. Vide Courts of the United States.

IMPEACHMENT, evidence. An allegation, supported by proof, that a witness who has been examined is unworthy of credit.

2. Every witness is liable to be impeached as to his character for truth; and, if his general character is good, he is presumed, at all times, to be ready to support it. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3224, et seq.

IMPEACHMENT OF WASTE. It signifies a restraint from committing waste upon lands or tenements; or a demand of compensation for waste done by a tenant who has but a particular estate in the land granted, and, therefore, no right to commit waste.

2. All tenants for life, or any less estate, are liable to be impeached for waste, unless they hold without impeachment of waste; in the latter case, they may commit waste without being questioned, or any demand for compensation for the waste done. 11 Co. 82.

IMPEDIMENTS, contracts. Legal objections to the making of a contract. Impediments which relate to the person are those of minority, want of reason, coverture, and the like; they are sometimes called disabilities. Vide Incapacity.

2. In the civil law, this term is used to signify bars to a marriage. These impediments are classed, as they are applied to particular persons, into absolute and relative; as they relate to the contract and its validity, they are dirimant (q. v.) and prohibitive. (q. v.) 1. The absolute impediments are those which prevent the person subject to them from marrying at, all, without either the nullity of marriage, or, its being punishable. 2. The relative impediments are those which regard only certain persons with regard to each other; as, the marriage of a brother to a sister. 3. The dirimant impediments are those which render a marriage void; as, where one of the contracting parties is already married to another person. 4. Prohibitive impediments are those which do not render the marriage null, but subject the parties to a punishment. Bowy. Mod. Civ. Law, 44, 45.

IMPERFECT. That which is incomplete.

2. This term is applied to rights and obligations. A man has a right to be relieved by his fellow-creatures, when in distress; but this right he cannot enforce by law; hence it is called an imperfect right. On the other hand, we are bound to be grateful for favors received, but we cannot be compelled to perform such imperfect obligations. Vide Poth. Ob. arc. Pręliminaire; Vattel, Dr. des Gens, Prel. notes, 17; and Obligations.

IMPERIUM. The right to command, which includes the right to employ the force of the state to enforce the laws; this is one of the principal attributes of the power of the executive. 1 Toull. n. 58.

IMPERTINENT, practice, pleading. What does not appertain, or belong to; id est, qui ad rem non pertinet.

2. Evidence of facts which do not belong to the matter in question, is impertinent and inadmissible. In general, what is immaterial is impertinent, and what is material is, in general, not impertinent. 1 McC. & Y. 337. See Gresl. Ev. Ch. 3, s. 1, p. 229. Impertinent matter, in a declaration or other pleading is that which does not belong to the subject; in such case it is considered as mere surplusage, (q. v.) and is rejected. Ham. N. P. 25. Vide 2 Ves. 24; 5 Madd. R. 450; Newl. Pr. 38; 2 Ves. 631; 5 Ves. 656; 18 Eng. Com. Law R. 201; Eden on Inj. 71.

3. There is a difference between matter merely impertinent and that which is scandalous; matter may be impertinent, without being scandalous; but if it is scandalous, it must be impertinent.

4. In equity a bill cannot, according to the general practice, be referred for impertinence after the defendant has answered or submitted to answer, but it may be referred for scandal at any time, and even upon the application of a stranger to the suit. Coop. Eq. Pl. 19; 2 Ves. 631; 6 Ves. 514; Story, Eq. Pl. 270. Vide Gresl. Eq. Ev. p. 2, c. 3, s, 1; 1 John. Ch. R. 103; 1 Paige's R. 555; I Edw. R. 350; 11 Price, R. 111; 5 Paige's R. 522; 1 Russ. & My. 28; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.; Scandal.

IMPETRATION. The obtaining anything by prayer or petition. In the ancient English statutes, it signifies a pre-obtaining of church benefices in England from the church of Rome, which belonged to the gift of the king, or other lay patrons. TO IMPLEAD, practice. To sue or prosecute by due course of law. 9 Watts, 47.

IMPLEMENTS. Such things as are used or employed for a trade, or furniture of a house.

IMIPLICATA, mar. law. In order to avoid the risk of making fruitless voyages, merchants have been in the habit of receiving small adventures on freight at so much per cent, to which they are entitled at all events, even if the adventure be lost. This is what the Italians call implicata. Targa, chap. 34 Emer. Mar. Loans, s. 5.

IMPLICATION. An inference of something not directly declared, but arising from what is admitted or expressed.

2. It is a rule that when the law gives anything to a man, it gives him by implication all that is necessary for its enjoyment. It is also a rule that when a man accepts an office, he undertakes by implication to use it according to law, and by non-user he may forfeit it. 2 B1. Com. 152.

3. An estate in fee simple will pass by implication; 6 John.. R. 185; IS John. R. 31; 2 Binn. R. 464, 532; such implication must not only be a possible or probable one, but it must be plain and necessary that is, so strong a probability of intention that an intention contrary to that imputed to the testator cannot be supposed. 1 Ves. & B. 466; Willes, 141; 1 Ves. jr. 564; 14 John. R. 198. Vide, generally, Com. Dig. Estates by Devise, N 12, 13; 2 Rop. Leg. 342; 14 Vin. Ab. 341; 5 Ves. 805; 5 Ves. 582; 3 Ves. 676.

IMPORTATION, comm. law. The act of bringing goods and merchandise into the United States from a foreign country. 9 Cranch, 104, 120; 5 Cranch, 368; 2 Mann. & Gr. 155, note a.

2. To prevent the mischievous interference of the several states with the national commerce, the constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 10, provides as follows: "No state shall, without the consent of the congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the congress."

3. This apparently plain provision has received a judicial construction. In the year 1821, the legislature of Maryland passed an act requiring that all importers of foreign articles, commodities, &c., by the bale or package, of wine, rum, &c., and other persons selling the same by wholesale, bale or package, hogshead, barrel or tierce, should, before they were authorized to sell, take out a license for which they were to pay fifty dollars, under certain penalties. A question arose whether this act was or was not a violation of the constitution of the United States, and particularly of the above clause, and the supreme court decided against the constitutionality of the law. 12 Wheat. 419.

4. The act of congress of March 1, 1817, 3 Story, L. U. S. 1622, provides:

5. - 1. That, after the 30th day of September next, no goods, wares, or merchandise, shall be imported into the United States from any foreign port or place, except in vessels of the United States, or in such foreign vessels as truly or wholly belong to the citizens or subjects of that country of which the goods are the growth, production or manufacture; or from which such goods, wares or merchandise, can only be or most usually are, first shipped for transportation: Provided, nevertheless, That this regulation shall not extend to the vessels of any foreign nation which has not adopted, and which shall not adopt a similar regulation.

6. - 2. That all goods, wares or merchandise, imported into the United States contrary to the true intent and meaning of this act, and the ship or vessel wherein the same shall be imported, together with her cargo, tackle, apparel, and furniture, shall be forfeited to the United States and such goods, wares, or merchandise, ship, or vessel, and cargo, shall be liable to be seized, prosecuted, and condemned, in like manner, and under the same regulations, restrictions, and provisions, as have been heretofore established for the recovery, collection, distribution, and remission, of forfeitures to the United States by the several revenue laws.

7. - 4. That no goods, wares, or merchandise, shall, be imported, under penalty of forfeiture thereof, from one port of the United States to another port of the United States, in a vessel belonging wholly or in part to a subject of any foreign power; but this clause shall not be construed to prohibit the sailing of any foreign vessel from one to another port of the United States, provided no goods, wares, or mere other than those imported in such vessel from some foreign port, and which shall not have been unladen, shall be carried from one port or place to another in the United States.

8. - 6. That after the 30th day of September next, there shall be paid upon every ship or vessel of the United States, which shall be entered in the United States from any foreign port or place, unless the officers, and at least two-thirds of the crew thereof, shall be proved citizens of the United States, or persons not the Subjects of any foreign prince or state, to the satisfaction of the collector, fifty cents per ton: And provided also, that this section shall not extend to ships or vessels of the United States, which are now on foreign voyages, or which may depart from the United States prior to the first day of May next, until after their return to some port of the United States.

9.- 7. That the several bounties and remissions, or abatements of duty, allowed by this act, in the case of vessels having a certain proportion of seamen who are American citizens, or persons not the subjects of any foreign power, shall be allowed only, in the case of vessels having such proportion of American seamen during their whole voyage, unless in case of sickness, death or desertion, or where the whole or part of the crew shall have been taken prisoners in the voyage. Vide article Entry of goods at the Custom-house.

IMPORTS. Importations; as no state shall lay any duties on imports or exports. Const. U. S. Art. 1, s. 10; 7 How. U. S. Rep. 477.

IMPORTUNITY. Urgent solicitation, with troublesome frequency and pertinacity.

2. Wills and devises are sometimes set aside in consequence of the importunity of those who have procured them. Whenever the importunity is such as to deprive the devisor of the freedom, of his will, the devise becomes fraudulent and void. Dane's Ab. ch. 127, a. 14, s. 5, 6, 7; 2 Phillim. R. 551, 2.

IMPOSITIONS. Imposts, taxes, or contributions.

IMPOSSIBILITY. The character of that which. cannot be done agreeably to the accustomed order of nature.

2. It is a maxim that no one is bound to perform an impossibility. A l'impossible nul n'est tenu. 1 Swift's Dig. 93; 6 Toull. n. 121, 481.

3. As to impossible conditions in contracts, see Bac. Ab. Conditions, M; Co. Litt. 206; Roll. Ab. 420; 6 Toull. n. 486, 686; Dig. 2, 14, 39; Id. 44, 7, 31; Id. 50, 17, 185; Id. 45, 1, 69. On the subject of impossible conditions in wills, vide 1 Rop. Leg. 505; Swinb. pt. 4, s. 6; 6 Toull. 614. Vide, generally, Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.; Clef des Lois Rom. par Fieffę Lacroix, h. t.; Com. Dig. Conditions, D 1 & 2; Vin. Ab. Conditions, C a, D a, E a.

IMPOSTS. This word is sometimes used to signify taxes, or duties, or impositions; and, sometimes, in the more restrained sense of a duty on imported goods and merchandise . The Federalist, No. 30; 3 Elliott's Debates, 289; Story, Const. 949.

>2. The Constitution of the United States, art. 1, s. 8, n. 1, gives power to congress "to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises." And art. 1, s. 10, n. 2, directs that "no state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any imposts, or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws." See Bac. Ab. Smuggling, B; 2 Inst. 62; Dy. 165 n.; Sir John Davis on Imposition.

IMPOTENCE, med. jur. The incapacity for copulation or propagating the species. It has also been used synonymously with sterility.

2. Impotence may be considered as incurable, ourable, accidental or temporary. Absolute or incurable impotence, is that for which there is no known relief, principally originating in some malformation or defect of the genital organs. Where this defect existed at the time of the marriage, and was incurable, by the ecclesiastical law and the law of several of the American states, the marriage may be declared void ab initio. Com. Dig. Baron and Feme, C 3; Bac. Ab. Marriage, &c., E 3; 1 Bl. Com. 440; Beck's Med. Jur. 67; Code, lib. 5, t. 17, l. 10; Poynt. on Marr. and Div. ch. 8; 5 Paige, 554; Merl. Ręp. mot Impuissance. But it seems the party naturally impotent cannot allege that fact for the purpose of obtaining a divorce. 3 Phillim. R. 147; S. C. 1 Eng. Eccl. R. 384. See 3 Phillim. R. 325; S. C. 1 Eng. Eccl. R. 408; 1 Chit. Med. Jur. 877; 1 Par. & Fonbl. 172, 173. note d; Ryan's Med. Jur. 95. to 111; 1 Bl. Com. 440; 2 Phillm. R. 10; 1 Hagg. R. 725. See, as to the signs of impotence, 1 Briand, Męd. Lęg. c. 2, art. 2, 2, n. 1; Dictionnaire des Sciences Mędicales, art. Impuissance; and, generally, Trebuchet, Jur. de la. Med. 100, 101, 102; 1 State Tr. 315; 8 State Tr. App. No. 1, p. 23; 3 Phillm. R. 147; 1 Hagg. Eccl. R. 523; Foderę, Męd. Lęg. 237.

IMPRESCRIPTIBILITY. The state of being incapable of prescription.

2. A property which is held in trust is imprescriptible; that is the trustee cannot acquire a title to it by prescription; nor can the borrower of a thing get a right to it by any lapse of time, unless he claims an adverse right to it during the time required by law.

IMPRIMATUR. A license or allowance to one to print.

2. At one time, before a book could be printed in England, it was requisite that a permission should be obtained that permission was called an imprimatur. In some countries where the press is liable to censure, an imprimatur is required.

IMPRIMERY. In some of the ancient English statutes this word is used to signify a printing-office, the art of printing, a print or impression.

IMPRIMIS. In the first place; as, imprimis, I direct my just debts to be paid. See Item.

IMPRISONMENT. The restraint of a person contrary to his will. 2 Inst. 589; Baldw. Rep. 239, 600. Imprisonment is either lawful or unlawful; lawful imprisonment is used either for crimes or for the appearance of a party in a civil suit, or on arrest in execution.

2. Imprisonment for crimes is either for the appearance of a person accused, as when he cannot give bail; or it is the effect of a sentence, and then it is a part of the punishnient.

3. Imprisonment in civil cases takes place when a defendant on being sued on bailable process refuses or cannot give the bail legally demanded, or is under a capias ad satisfaciendum, when he is taken in execution under a judgment. An unlawful imprisonment, commonly called false imprisonment, (q. v.) meaus any illegal imprisonment whatever, either with or without process, or under color of process wholly illegal, without regard to any question whether any crime has been committed or a debt due.

4. As to what will amount to an imprisonment, the most obvious modes are confinement in a prison or a private house, but a forcible detention in the street, or the touching of a person by a peace officer by way of arrest, are also imprisonments. Bac. Ab. Trespass, D 3; 1 Esp. R. 431, 526. It has been decided that lifting up a person in his chair, and carrying him out of the room in which he was sitting with others, and excluding him from the room, was not an imprisonment; 1 Chit. Pr. 48; and the merely giving charge of a person to a peace officer, not followed by any actual apprehension of the person, does not amount to an imprisonment, though the party to avoid it, next day attend at a police; 1 Esp. R. 431; New Rep. 211; 1 Carr. & Pavn. 153; S. C. II Eng. Com. Law, R. 351; and if, in consequence of a message from a sheriff's officer holding a writ, the defendant execute and send him a bail bond, such submission to the process will not constitute an arrest. 6 Bar. & Cres. 528; S. C. 13 Eng. Com. Law Rep. 245; Dowl. & R. 233. Vide, generally, 14 Vin. Ab. 342; 4 Com. Dig. 618; 1 Chit. Pr. 47; Merl. Rępert. mot Emprisonment; 17 Eng. Com. L. R. 246, n.

IMPROBATION. The act by which perjury or falsehood is proved. Techn. Dict. h. t.

IMPROPRIATION, eccl. law. The act, of employing the revenues of a church living to one's own use; it is also a parsonage or ecclesiastical living in the hands of a layman, or which descends by inheritance. Techn. Dict. h. t.

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