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INSANE. One deprived of the use of reason, after he has arrived at the age when he ought to have it, either by a natural defect or by accident. Domat, Lois Civ. Lib. prel. tit. 2, s. 1, n. ll.

INSANITY, med. jur. A continued impetuositv of thought, which, for the time being, totally unfitsga man for judging and acting in relation to the matter in question, with the composure requisite for the maintenance of the social relations of life. Various other definitions of this state have been given, but perhaps the subject is not susceptible of any satisfactory definition, which shall, with, precision, include all cases of insanity, and exclude all others. Ray, Med. Jur. 24, p. 50.

2. It may be considered in a threefold point of view: 1. A chronic disease, manifested by deviations from the healthy and natural state of the mind, such deviations consisting in a morbid perversion of the feelings, affections and habits. 2. Disturbances of the intellectual faculties, under the influence of which the understanding becomes susceptible of hallucinations or erroneous. impressions of a particular kind. 3. A state of mental incoherence or constant hurry and confusion of thought. Cyclo. Practical Medicine, h. t.; Brewster's Encyclopaedia, h. t.; Observations on the Deranged Manifestations of the Mind, or Insanity, 71, 72; Merl. Rępert. mots Demenoe, Folie, Imbecilite; 6 Watts & Serg. 451.

3. The diseases included under the name of insanity have been arranged under two divisions, founded on two very different conditions of the brain. Ray, Med. Jur. ch. 1, 33.

4. - 1. The want of, or a defective development of the faculties. 1st. Idiocy, resulting from, 1. Congenital defect. 2. An obstacle to the development of the faculties, supervening in infancy. 2d. Imbecility, resulting from, 1. Congenital defects. 2. An obstacle to the development of the faculties, supervening in infancy.

5. - 2. The lesion of the faculties subsequent to their development. In this division may be classed, 1st. Mania, which is, 1. Intellectual, and is general or partial. 2. Affective and is general or, partial. 2d. Dementia, which is, 1. Consecutive to mania, or injuries of the brain. 2. Senile, or peculiar to old age.

6. - There is also a disease which has acquired the name of Moral insanity. (q. v.)

7. Insanity is an excuse for the commission of acts which in others would be crimes, because the insane man has no intention; it deprives a man also from entering into any valid contract. Vide Lunacy; Non compos mentis, and Stock on the Law of Non Compotes Mentis; 1 Hagg. Cons. R. 417; 3 Addams, R. 90, 91, 180, 181; 3 Hagg. Eccl. R. 545, 598, 600; 2 Greenl. Ev. 369, 374; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

INSCRIPTION, civil law. An engagerment which a person, who makes a solemn accusation of a crime against another, enters into, that he will suffer the same punishment, if he has accused, the other falsely, which would have been inflicted upon him had he been guilty. Code, 9, 1, 10; Id. 9, 2, 16 and 17.

INSCRIPTION, evidence. Something written or engraved.

2. Inscriptions upon tombstones and other proper places, as rings, and the like, are held to be evidence of pedigree. Bull. N. P. 233 Cowp. 591; 10 East, R. 120 13 Ves. 145 Vin. Ab. Ev. T. b. 87: 3 Stark. Ev. 116.

INSCRIPTIONES. The name given by the old English law to any written instrument by which anything was granted. Blount.

INSENSIBLE. In the language of pleading, that which is unintelligible is said to be insensible. Stepb. Pl. 378.

INSIDIATORES VIARUM. Persons who lie in wait, in order to commi some felony or other misdemeanor.

INSMUL. Together; jointly. This word is used in composition; as, insimulcomputassent; non tenent insimul.

INSIMUL COMPUTASSENT, practice, actions. They accounted together.

2. When an account has been stated, and a balance ascertained between the parties, they are said to have computed together, and the amouut due may be recovered in an action of assumpsit, which could not have been done, if the defendant had been the mere bailiff or partner of the plaintiff, and there had been no settlement made; for in that case, the remedy would be an action of account render, or a bill in chancery. It is usual in actions of assumpsit, to add a count commonly called insimul computassent, or an account stated. (q. v.) Lawes on Pl. in Ass. 488.

INSINUATION, civil law. The transcription of an act on the public registers, like our recording of deeds. It was not necessary in any other alienation, but that appropriated to the purpose of donation. Inst. 2, 7, 2; Poth. Traite des Donations, entre vifs, sect. 2, art. 3, 3; Encyclopedie; 8 Toull. n. 198.

INSOLVENCY. The state or condition of a person who is insolvent. (q. v.) .

2. Insolvency may be simple or notorious. Simple insolvency is the debtor's inability to pay his debts; and is attended by no legal badge of notoriety, or promulgation. Notorious insolvency is that which is designated by some public act, by which it becomes notorious and irretrievable, as applying for the benefit of the insolvent laws, and being discharged under the same.

3. Insolvency is a term of more extensive signification than bankruptcy, and includes all kinds of inability to pay a just debt. 2 Bell's Commentaries, 162, 6th ed.

INSOLVENT. This word has several meanings. It signifies a person whose estate is not sufficient to pay his debts. Civ. Code of Louisiana, art. 1980.. A person is also said to be insolvent, who is under a present inability to answer, in the ordinary course of business, the responsibility which his creditors may enforce, by recourse to legal measures, without reference to his estate proving sufficient to pay all his debts, when ultimately wound up. 3 Dowl. & Ryl. Rep. 218; 1 M aule & Selw. 338; 1 Campb. it. 492, n.; Sugd. Vend. 487, 488. It signifies the situation of a person who has done some notorious act to divest himself of all his property, as a general assignment, or an application for relief, under bankrupt or insolvent laws. 1 Peters' R. 195; 2 Wheat. R. 396; 7 Toull. n. 45; Domat, liv. 4, t. 5, n. 1 et 2; 2 Bell's Com. 162, 5th ed.

2. When an insolvent delivers or offers to deliver up all his property for the benefit of his creditors, he is entitled to be discharged under the laws of the, several states from all liability to be arrested. Vide 2 Kent, Com. 321 Ingrah. on Insolv. 9; 9 Mass. R. 431; 16 Mass. R. 53.

3. The reader will find the provisions made by the national legislature on this subject, by a reference to the following acts of congress, namely: Act of March 3, 1797, 1 Story, L. U. S. 465; Act of March 2, 1799; 1 Story, L. S. 630; Act of March 2, 1831, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story, L. U. S. 2236; Act of June 7, 1834, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story, L. U. S. 2358; Act of March 2, 1837, 4 Sharsw. Cont. of Story, L. U. S. 2536. See Bankrupt.

INSPECTION, comm. law. The examination of certain articles made by law subject to such examination, so that they may be declared fit for commerce. The decision of the inspectors is not final; the object' of the law is to protect the community from fraud, and to preserve the character of the merchandise abroad. 8 Cowen, R. 45. See 1 John. 205; 13 John. R. 331; 2 Caines, R. 312; 3 Caines, R. 207.

INSPECTION, practice. Examination. 2. The inspection of all public records is free to all persons who have an interest in them, upon payment of the usual fees. 7 Mod. 129; 1 Str. 304; 2 Str. 260, 954, 1005. But it seems a mere stranger who has no such interest, has no right, at common law. 8 T. R. 390. Vide Trial by insection.

INSPECTOR. The name given to certain officers whose duties are to examine and inspect things over which they have jurisdiction; as, inspector of bark , one who is by law authorized to examine bark for exportation, and to approve or disapprove of its quality. Inspectors of customs are officers appointed by the general government: as to their duties, see Story's L. U. S. vol. 1, 590, 605, 609, 610, 612, 619, 621, 623, 650; ii. 1490, 1516; iii. 1650, 1790.

INSPEXIMUS. We have seen. A word sometimes used in letters-patent, reciting a grant, inspeximus such former grant, and so reciting it verbatim; it then grants such further privileges as are thought convenient. 5 Co. 54.

INSTALLATION or INSTALMENT. The act by which an officer is put in public possession of the place he is to fill. The president of the United States, or a governor, is installed into office, by being sworn agreeably to the requisition of the constitution and laws. Vide Inavguration.

INSTALMENT, contracts. A part of a debt due by contract, and agreed to be paid at a time different from that fixed for the, payment of the other part. For example, if I engage to pay you one thousand dollars, in two payments, one on the first clay of January, and the other on the first day of July, each of these payments or obligations to pay will be an instalment .

2. In such case each instalment is a separate debt so far that it may be tendered at any time, or the first may be sued for although the other shall not be due. Dane's Ab. vol. iii. ch. 93, art. 3, s. 11, page 493, 4; 1 Esp. R. 129; Id. 226; 3 Salk. 6, 18: Esp. R. 235; 1 Maule & Selw. 706. 3. A debtor who by failing to pay three instalments of rent due on a lease would forfeit his estate, may, in order to save it, tender one instalment to prevent the forfeiture, although there may be two due at the time, and he is not bound to tender both. 6 Toull. n. 688.

INSTANCE, civil and French law. It signifies, generally, all sorts of actions and judicial demands. Dig. 44, 7, 58.

INSTANCE COURT, Eng. law. The English court of admiralty is divided into two distinct tribunals; the one having, generally, all the jurisdiction of the admiralty, except in prize cases, is called the instance court; the other, acting under a special commission, distinct from the usual commission given to judges of the admiralty, to enable the judge in time of war to assume the jurisdiction of prizes, and' called Prize court.

2. In the United States, the district courts of the U. S. possess all the powers of courts of admiralty, whether considered as instance or prize courts. 3 Dall. R. 6. Vide 1 Gall. R. 563; Bro. Civ. & Adm. Law, ch. 4 & 5; 1 Kent, Com. 355, 378. Vide Courts of the United States; Prize Court.

INSTANT. An indivisible space of time.

2. Although it cannot be actually divided, yet by intendmeent of law, it may be applied to several purposes; for example, he who lays violent hands upon himself, commits no felony till he is dead, and when he is dead he is not in being so as to be termed a felon; but he is so adjudged in law, eo instante, at the very instant this fact is done. Vin. Ab. Instant, A, pl. 2; Plowd. 258; Co. Litt. 18; Show. 415.

INSTANTER. Immediately; presently. This term, it is said, means that the act to which it applies, shall be done within twenty-four hours but a doubt has been suggested by whom is the account of the hours to be kept, and whether the term instanter as applied to the subject-matter may not be more properly taken to mean "before, the rising of the court," when the act is to be done in court; or, "before the shutting of the office the same night," when the act is to be done there. 1 Taunt. R. 343; 6 East, R. 587, n. e; Tidd's Pr. 3d ed. 508, n.; 3 Chit. Pr. 112. Vide, 3 Burr. 1809; Co. Litt. 157; Styles' Register, 452.

INSTAR. Likeness; resemblance; equivalent as, instar dentium, like teeth; instar omnium, equivalent to all.

INSTIGATION. The act by which one incites another to do something, as to injure a third person, or to commit some crime or misdemeanor, to coramence a suit or to prosecute a criminal. Vide Accomplice.

INSTITOR, civ. law. A clerk in a store an agent.

2. He was so called because he watched over the business with which he was charged; and it is immaterial whether he was employed in making a sale in a store, or whether charged with any other business. Institor appellatus est ex eo, quod negotio gerendo instet; nec multum facit tabernae sit praepositus, an cuilibet alii negotiationi. Dig. lib. 14, tit. 3, l. 3. Mr., Bell says, that the charge given to a clerk to manage a store or shop, is called institorial power. 1 Bell's Com. 479, 6th ed.; Ersk. Inst. B. 3, t. 3, 46; 1 Stair's Inst. by Brodie, B. 1, tit. 11, 12, 18, 19; Story on Ag. 8.

INSTITUTE, Scotch law. The person first called in the tailzie; the rest, or the heirs of tailzie, are called substitutes. Ersk. Pr. L. Scot. 3, 8, 8. See Tailzie, Heir of; Substitutes.

2. In the civil law, an inastitute is one who is appointed heir by testament, and is required to give the estate devised to another person, who is called the substitute.

TO INSTITUTE. To name or to make an heir by testament. Dig. 28, 5, 65. To make an accusation; to commence an action.

INSTITUTES. The principles or first elements of jurisprudence.

2. Many books have borne the title of Institutes. Among the most celebrated in the common law, are the Institutes of Lord Coke, which, however, on account of the want of arrangement and the diffusion with which his books are written, bear but little the character of Institutes; in the, civil law the most generally known are those of Caius, Justinian, and Theophilus.

3. The Institutes of Caius are an abridgment of the Roman law, composed by the celebrated lawyer Caius or Gaius, who lived during th e reign of Marcus Aurelius.

4. The Institutes of Justinian, so called, because they are, as it were, masters and instructors to the. ignorant, and show an easy way to the obtaining of the knowledge of the law, are an abridgment of the Code and of the Digest, composed by order of that emperor: his intention in this composition was to give a summary knowledge of the law to those persons not versed in it, and particularly to merchants. The lawyers employed to make this book, were Tribonian, Theophilus, and Dorotheus. The work was first published in the year 533, and received the sanction of statute law, by order of the emperor. The Institutes of Justinian are divided into four books: each book is divided into two titles, and each title into parts. The first part is called principium, because it is the commencement of the title; those which follow are numbered and called paragraphs. The work treats of the rights of persons, of things, and of actions. The first book treats of persons; the second, third, and the first five titles of the fourth book, of things; and the remainder of the fourth book, of actions. This work has been much admired on account of its order and Scientific arrangement, which presents, at a single glance, the whole jurisprudence of the Romans. It is too little known and studied. The late Judge Cooper, of Pennsylvania, published an edition with valuable notes.

5. The Institutes of Theophilus are a paraphrase of those of Justinian, composed in Greek, by a lawyer of that name, by order of the emperor Phocas. Vide 1 Kent, Com. 538; Profession d'Avocat tom. ii. n. 536, page 95; Introd. a l'Etude du Droit Romain, p. 124; Dict. de Jurisp. h. t.; Merl. Rępert. h. t.; Encyclopędie de d'Alembert, h. t.

INSTITUTION, eccl. law. The act by which the ordinary commits the cure of souls to a person presented to a benefice.

INSTITUTION, political law. That which has been established and settled by law for the public good; as, the American institutions guaranty to the citizens all privileges and immunities essential to freedom.

INSTITUTION, practice. The commencement of an action; as, A B has instituted a suit against C D, to recover damages for a trespass.

INSTITUTION OF HEIR, civil law. The act by which a testator nominates one or more persons to succeed him in all his rights, active and passive. Poth. Tr. des Donations Testamentaires, c. 2, s. 1, 1; Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1598; Dig. lib. 28, tit. 5, l. 1; and lib. 28, tit. 6, l. 2, 4.

INSTRUCTION, French law. This word signifies the meaus used and formality employed to prepare a case for trial. it is generally applied to criminal cases, and is then called criminal, instruction; it is then defined the acts and proceedings which tend to prove positively a crime or delict, in order to inflict on the guilty person the punishment which he deserves.

INSTRUCTIONS, com. law, Contracts. Orders given by a principal to his agent in relation to the business of his agency.

2. The agent is bound to obey the instructions he has received and when he neglects so to do, he is responsible for the consequences, unless he is justified by matter of necessity. 4 Binn. R. 361; 1 Liverm. Agency, 368.

3. Instructions differ materially from authority, as regards third persons. When a written authority is known to exist, or, by the nature of the transaction, it is presupposed, it is the duty of persons dealing with an agent to ascertain the nature and extent of his authority; but they are not required to make inquiry of the agent as to any private instructions from his principal, for the obvious reason that they may be presumed to be secret and of a confidential nature, and therefore not to be communicated to third persons. 5 Bing. R. 442.

4. Instructions are given as applicable to the usual course of things, and are subject to two qualifications which are naturally, and perhaps necessarily implied in every mercantile agency. 1. As instructions are applicable only to the ordinary course of affairs, the agent will be justified, in cases of extreme necessity and unforeseen emergency, in deviating from them; as, for example, when goods on hand are perishable and perishing, or when they are accidentally injured and must be sold to prevent further loss; or if they are in imminent danger of being lost by the capture of the port where they are, they may be transferred to another port. Story on Ag. 85, 118, 193; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 218; 4 Binn. 361; 1 Liverm. on Ag. 368. 2. Instructions must be lawful; if they are given to perform an unlawful act, the agent is not bound by them. 4 Campb. 183; Story on Ag. 195. But the lawfulness of such instruction does not relate to the laws of foreign countries. Story, Confl. of Laws, 245; 1 Liverm. on Ag. 15-19. As to the construction of letters of instruction, see 3 Wash. C. C. R. 151; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 551; 1 Liv. on Ag. 403; Story on Ag. 74; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 132; 2 Crompt. & J. 244; 1 Knapp,, R. 381.

INSTRUCTIONS, practice. The statements of a cause of action, given by a client to his attorney, and which, where such is the practice, are sent to his pleader to put into legal form of a declaration. Warr. Stud. 284.

2. Instructions to counsel are their indemnity for any aspersions they may make on the opposite party; but attorneys who have a just regard to their own reputation will be cautious, even under instructions, not to make any unnecessary attack upon a party or witness. For such unjustifiable conduct the counsel will be held responsible. Eunom. Dial. 2, 43, p. 132. For a form of instructions, see 3 Chit. Pr. 117, and 120 n.

INSTRUMENT, contracts. The writing which contains some agreement, and is so called because it has been prepared as a memorial of what has taken place or been agreed upon. The agreement and the instrument in which it is contained are very different things, the latter being only evidence of the existence of the former. The instrument or form of the contract may be valid, but the contract itself may be void on account of fraud. Vide Ayl. Parerg. 305; Dunl. Ad. Pr. 220.

INSTRUMENTA. This word is properly applied to designate that kind of evidence, which consists of writings not under seal, as court rolls, accounts, and the like. 3 Tho. Co. Litt. 487.

INSULA, Latin. An island. In the Roman law the word is applied to a house not connected with other houses, but separated by a surrounding space of ground. Calvini Lex; Vicat, Vocab. ad voc.

INSUFFICIENCY. What is not competent; not enough.

INSUPER, Eng. law. The balance due by an accountant in the exchequer, as apparent by his account. The auditors in settling his account say there remains so much insuper to such accountant.

INSURABLE INTEREST. That right of property which may be the subject of an insurance.

2. The policy of commerce, and the various complicated rights which different persons may have in the same thing, require that not only those who have an absolute property in ships or goods, but those also who, have a qualified property in them, may be at liberty to insure them. For example, when a ship is mortgaged, and the mortgage has become absolute, the owner of the legal estate has an insurable interest, and the mortgagor, on account of his equity, has also an insurable interest. 1 Burr. 489. See 20 Pick. 259; 1 Pet. 163.

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