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LIBERTY. Freedom from restraint. The power of acting as one thinks fit, without any restraint or control, except from the laws of nature.

2. Liberty is divided into civil, natural, personal, and political.

3. Civil liberty is the power to do whatever is permitted by the constitution of the state and the laws of the land. It is no other than natural lib-erty, so far restrained by human laws, and no further, operating equally upon all the citizens, as is necessary and expedient for the general advantage of the public. 1 Black. Com. 125; Paley's Mor. Phil. B. 6, c.5; Swifts Syst. 12

4. That system of laws is alone calculated to maintain civil liberty, which leaves the citizen entirely master of his own conduct, except in those points in which the public good requires some direction and restrant. When a man is restrained in his natural liberty by no municipal laws but those which are requisite to prevent his violating the natural law, and to promote the greatest moral and physical welfare of the community, he is legally possessed of the fullest enjoyment of his civil rights of individual liberty. But it must not be inferred that individuals are to judge for themselves how far the law may justifiably restrict their individual liberty; for it is necessary to-the welfare of the commonwealth, that the law should be obeyed; and thence is derived the legal maxim, that no man may be wiser than the law.

5. Natural liberty is the right which nature gives to all mankind, of diposing of their persons and property after the manner they judge most consonant to their happiness, on condition of their acting within the limits of the law of nature, and that they do not in any way abuse it to the prejudice of other men. Burlamaqui, c. 3, s. 15; 1 Bl. Com. 125.

6. Personal liberty is the independence of our actions of all other will than our own. Wolff, Ins. Nat. 77. It consists in the power of locomotion, of changing situation, or removing one's person to whatever place one's inclination may direct, without imprisonment or restraint, unless by due course of law. 1 Bl. Com. 134.

7. Political liberty may be defined to be, the security by which, from the constitution, form and nature of the established government, the citizens enjoy civil liberty. No ideas or definitions are more distinguishable than those of civil aud political liberty, yet they are generally confounded. 1 Bl. Com. 6, 125. The political liberty of a state is based upon those fundamental laws which establish the distribution of legislative and executive powers. The political liberty of a citizen is that tranquillity of mind, which is the effect of an opinion that he is in perfect security; and to insure this security, the government must be such that one citizen shall not fear another.

8. In the English law, by liberty is meant a privilege held by grant or prescription, by which some men enjoy greater benefits than ordiuary subjects. A liberty is also a territory, with some extraordinary privilege.

9. By liberty or liberties, is understood a part of a town or city, as the Northern Liberties of the city of Philadelphia. The same as Faubourg. (q. V.)

LIBERTY OF THE PRESS. The right to print and publish the truth, from good motives, and for justifiable ends. 3 Johns. Cas. 394.

2. This right is secured by the constitution of the United States. Amendments, art. 1. The abuse of the right is punished criminally, by indictment; civilly, by action. Vide Judge Cooper's Treatise on the Law of Libel, aud the Liberty of the Press, passim; and article Libel.

LIBERTY OF SPEECH. The right given by the constitution and the laws to public support in speaking facts or opinions.

2. In a republican government like ours, liberty of speech cannot be extended too far, when its object is the public good. It is, therefore, wisely provided by the constitution of the United States, that members of congress shall not be called to account for anything said in debate; and similar provisions are contained in the constitutions of the several states in relation to the members of their respective legislatures. This right, however, does not extend beyond the mere speaking; for if a member of congress were to reduce his speech to writing and cause it to be printed, it would no longer bear a privileged character and he might be held responsible for a libel, as any other individual. Bac. Ab. Libel, B.* See Debate.

3. The greatest latitude is allowed by the common law to counsel; in the discharge of his professional duty he may use strong epithets, however derogatory to other persons they may be, if pertinent to the cause, and stated in his instructions, whether the thing were true or false. But if he were maliciously to travel out of his case for the purpose of slandering another, he would be liable to an action, and amenable to a just and often more efficacious punishment inflicted by public opinion. 3 Chit. Pr. 887. No respectable counsel will indulge himself with unjust severity; and it is doubtless the duty of the court to prevent any such abuse.

LIBERUM TENEMENTUM, pleading. The name of a plea in an action of trespass, by which the defendant claims the locus in quo to be his soil and freehold, or the soil and freehold of a third person, by whose command he entered. 2 Salk. 453; 7 T. R. 355; 1 Saund. 299, b, note.

LIBERUM TENEMENTUM, estate. The same as, freehold, (q. v.) or frank tenement. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 1690.

LICENSE, contracts. A right given by some competent authority to do an act, which without such authority would be illegal. The instrument or writing which secures this right, is also called a license. Vide Ayl. Parerg, 353; 15 Vin. Ab. 92; Ang. Wat. Co. 61, 85.

2. A license is express or implied. An express license is one which in direct terms authorizes the performance of a certain act; as a license to keep a tavern given by public authority.

3. An implied license is one which though not expressly given, may be presumed from the acts of the party having a right to give it. The following are examples of such licenses: 1. When a man knocks at another's door, and it is opened, the act of opening the door licenses the former to enter the house for any lawful purpose. See Hob. 62. A servant is, in consequence of his employment, licensed to admit to the house, those who come on his master's business, but only such persons. Selw. N. P. 999; Cro. Eliz. 246. It may, however, be inferred from circumstances that the servant has authority to invite whom he pleases to the house, for lawful purposes. See 2 Greenl. Ev. 427; Entry.

4. A Iicense is either a bare authority, without interest, or it is coupled with an interest. 1. A bare license must be executed by the party to whom it is given in person, and cannot be made over or assigned by him to another; and, being without consideration, may be revoked at pleasure, as long as it remains executory; 39 Hen. VI. M. 12, page 7; but when carried into effect, either partially or altogether, it can only be rescinded, if in its nature it will admit of revocation, by placing the other side in the same situation in which he stood before he entered on its execution. 8 East, R. 308; Palm. 71; S. C. Poph. 151; S. C. 2 Roll. Rep. 143, 152.

5. - 2. When the license is coupled with an interest the authority conferred is not properly a mere permission, but amounts to a grant, which cannot be revoked, and it may then be assigned to a third person. 5 Hen. V., M. 1, page 1; 2 Mod. 317; 7 Bing. 693; 8 East, 309; 5 B. & C. 221; 7 D. & R. 783; Crabb on R. P. 521 to 525; 14 S. & R 267; 4 S. & R. 241; 2 Eq. Cas. Ab. 522. When the license is coupled with an interest, the formalities essential to confer such interest should be observed. Say. R. 3; 6 East, R. 602; 8 East, R. 310, note. See 14 S. & R. 267; 4 S. & R. 241; 2 Eq. Cas. Ab. 522; 11 Ad. & El. 34, 39; S. C. 39 Eng, C. L. R. 19.

LICENSE, International law. An authority given by one of two belligerent parties, to the citizens or subjects of the other, to carry on a specified trade.

2. The effects of the license are to suspend or relax the rules of war to the extent of the authority given. It is the assumption of a state of peace to the extent of the license. In the country which grants them, licenses to carry on a pacific commerce are stricti juris, as being exceptions to the general rule; though they are not to be construed with pedantic accuracy, nor will every small deviation be held to vitiate the fair effect of them. 4 Rob. Rep. 8; Chitty, Law of Nat. 1 to 5, and 260; 1 Kent, Com. 164, 85.

LlCENSE, pleading. The name of a plea of justification to an action of trespass. A license must be specially pleaded, and cannot, like liberum tenementum, be given in evidence under the general issue. 2. T. R. 166, 108

LICENSEE. One to whom a license has been given. 1 M. Q. & S. 699 n.

LICENTIA CONCORDANDI, estates, conveyancing, practice. When an action is brought for the purpose of levying a fine, the defendant, knowing himself to be in the wrong, is supposed to make overtures of accommodation to the plaintiff, who accepts them; but having given pledges to prosecute his suit, applies to the court, upon the return of the writ of covenant, for leave to make the matter up; this, which is readily granted, is called the, licentia concordandi. 5 Rep. 39; Cruise, Dig. tit. 35, c. 2, 22.

LICENTIA LOQUENDI. Imparlance. (q. v.)

LICENTIOUSNESS. The doing what one pleases without regard to the rights of others; it differs from liberty in this, that the latter is restrained by natural or positive law, and consists in doing whatever we please, not inconsistent, with the rights of others, whereas the former does not respect those rights. Wolff, Inst. 84.

LICET SAEPIUS REQUISITUS, pleading. practice. Although often requested. It is usually alleged in the declaration that the defendant, licet saepius requisitus, &c., he did not perform the contract, the violatioin of which is the foundation of the action. The allegation is generally sufficient when a request is not parcel of the contract. Indeed, in such cases it is unneccssary even to lay a general request, for the bringing of the suit is itself a sufficient request. 1 Saund. 33, n. 2; 2 Saund, 118 note 3; Plowd. 128; 1 Wils. 33; 2 H. BI. 131; 1 John. Cas. 99, 319; 7 John. R. 462; 18 John. R. 485; 3 M. & S. 150. Vide Demand.

LICET. It is lawful; not forbidden by law. Id omne licitum est, quod non est legibus prohibitum; quamobrem, quod, lege permittente, fit, poenam non meretur.

LICITATION. A sale at auction; a sale to the highest bidder.

LIDFORD LAW. Vide Lynch Law.

TO LIE. That which is proper, is fit; as, an action on the case lies for an injury committed without force; corporeal hereditaments lie in livery, that is, they pass by livery; incorporeal hereditaments lie in grant, that is, pass by the force of the grant, and without any livery. Vide Lying in grant.

LIEGE, from the Latin, ligare, to bind. The bond subsisting between the subject and chief, or lord and vassal, binding the one to protection and just government, the other to tribute and due subjection. The prince or chief is called liege lord; the subjects liege men. The word is now applied as if the liegance or bond were only to attach the people to the prince. Stat. 8 Hen. VI. c. 10; 14 Hen. VIII. c. 2; 1 Bl. Com. 367.

LIEGE POUSTIE, Scotch law. The condition or state of a person who is in his ordinary health and capacity, and not a minor, nor cognosced as an idiot or madman, nor under interdiction. He is then said to be in Iiege poustie, or in legitima potestati, and he has full power of disposal of his property. 1 Bell's Com. 85, 5th ed.; 6 Clark & Fin. 540. Vide Sui juris.

LIEN, contracts. In its most extensive signification, this term includes every case in which real or personal property is charged with the payment of any debt or duty; every such charge being denominated a lien on the property. In a more limited sense it is defined to be a right of detaining the property of another until some claim be satisfied. 2 East 235; 6 East 25; 2 Campb. 579; 2 Meriv. 494; 2 Rose, 357; 1 Dall. R. 345.

2. The right of lien generally arises by operation of law, but in some cases it is created by express contract.

3. There are two kinds of lien; namely, particular and general. When a person claims a right to retain property, in respect of money or labor expended on such particular property, this is a particular lien. Liens may arise in three ways: 1st. By express contract. 2d. From implied contract, as from general or particular usage of trade. 3d. By legal relation between the parties, which may be created in three ways; When the law casts an obligation on a party to do a particular act, and in return for which, to secure him payment, it gives him such lien; 1 Esp. R. 109; 6 East, 519; 2 Ld. Raym. 866; common carriers and inn keepers are among this number. 2. When goods are delivered to a tradesman or any other, to expend his labor upon, he is entitled to detain those goods until he is remunerated for the labor which he so expends. 2 Roll. Ab. 92; 3 M. & S. 167; 14 Pick. 332; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2514. 3. When goods have been saved from the perils of the sea, the salvor may detain them until his claim for salvage is satisfied; but in no other case has the finder of goods, a lien. 2 Salk. 654; 5 Burr. 2732; 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 2518. General liens arise in three ways; 1. By the agreement of the parties. 6 T. R.14; 3 Bos. & Pull. 42. 2. By the general usage of trade. 3. By particular usage of trade. Whitaker on Liens 35; Prec. Ch. 580; 1 Atk. 235; 6 T. R. 19.

4. It may be proper to consider a few, general principles: 1. As to the manner in which a lien may be acquired. 2. To what claims liens properly attach. 3. How they may be lost. 4. Their effect.

5. - 1. How liens may be acquired. To create a valid lien, it is essential, 1st. That the party to whom or by whom it is acquired should have the absolute property or ownership of the thing, or, at least, a right to vest it. 2d. That the party claiminig the lien should have an actual or constructive, possession, with the assent of the party against whom the claim is made. 3 Chit. Com. Law, 547; Paley on Ag. by Lloyd, 137; 17 Mass. R. 197; 4 Campb. R. 291; 3 T. R. 119 and 783; 1 East, R. 4; 7 East, R. 5; 1 Stark. R. 123; 3 Rose, R. 955; 3 Price, R. 547; 5 Binn. R. 392. 3d. That the lien should arise upon an agreement, express or implied, and not be for a limited or specific purpose inconsistent with the express terms, or the clear, intent of the contract; 2 Stark. R. 272; 6 T. R. 258; 7 Taunt. 278;. 5 M. & S. 180; 15 Mass. 389, 397; as, for example, when goods are deposited to be delivered to a third person, or to be transported to another place. Pal. on Ag. by Lloyd, 140.

6. - 2. The debts or claims to which liens properly attach. 1st. In general, liens properly attach on liquidated demands, and not on those which sound only in damages; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 548; though by an express contract they may attach even in such a case as, where the goods are to be held as an indemnity against a future contingent claim or damages. Ibid. 2d. The claim for which the lien is asserted, must he due to the party claiming it in his own right, and not merely as agent of a third person. It must be a debt or demand due from the very person for whose benefit the party is acting, and not from a third person, although the goods may be claimed through him. Pal. Ag. by Lloyd, 132.

7. - 3. How a lien may be lost. 1st. It may be waived or lost by any act or agreement between the parties, by which it is surrendered, or becomes inaplicable. 2d. It may also be lost by voluntarily parting with the possession of the goods. But to this rule there are some exceptions; for example, when a factor by lawful authority sells the goods of his principal, and parts with the possession under the sale he is not, by this act, deemed to lose his lien, but it attaches to the proceeds of the sale in the hands of hte vendee.

8. - 4. The effect of liens. In general, the right of the holder of the lien is confined to the mere right of retainer. But when the creditor has made advances on the goods of a factor, he is generally invested with the right to sell. Holt's N P. Rep. 383; 3 Chit. Com. Law, 551; 2 Liverm. Ag. 103; 2 Kent's Com. 642, 3d ed. In some cases where the lien would not confer power to sell, a court of equity would decree it. 1 Story Eq. Jur. 566; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. 1216; Story Ag. 371. And courts of admiralty will deeree a sale to satisfy maritime liens. Abb. Ship. pt. 3, c10. 2; Story, Ag. 371.

9. Judgments rendered in courts of record are generally liens on the real estate of the defendants or parties against whom such judgments are given. In Alabama, Georgia and Indiana, judgment is a lien; in the last mentioned state, it continues for ten years from January 1, 1826, if it was rendered from that time; if, after ten years from the rendition of the judgment, and when the proceedings are stayed by order of the court, or by an agreement recorded, the time of its suspension is not reckoned in the ten years. A judgment does not bind lands in Kentucky, the lien commences by the delivery of execution to the sheriff, or officer. 4 Pet. R. 366; 1 Dane's R. 360. The law seems to be the same in Mississippi. 2 Hill. Ab. c. 46, s. 6., In New Jersey, the judgments take priority among themselves in the order the executions on them have been issued. The lien of a judgment and the decree of a court of chancery continue a lien in New York for ten years, and bind after acquired lands. N. Y. Stat. part 3, t. 4, s. 3. It seems that a judgment is a lien in North Carolina, if an elegit has been sued out, but this is perhaps not settled. 2 Murph. R. 43. The lien of a judgment in Ohio is confined to the county, and continues only for one year, unless revived. It does not, per se, bind after acquired lands. In Pennsylvania, it commences with the rendering of judgment, and continues five years from the return day of that term. It does not, per se, bind after acquired lands. It may be revived by scire facias, or an agreement of the parties, and terre tenants, written and filed. In South CaroIina and Tennessee a judgment is also a lien. In the New England states, lands are attached by mesne process or on the writ, and a lien is thereby created. See 2 Hill. Ab. c. 46.

10. Liens are also divided into legal and equitable. The former are those which may be enforeed iu a court of law; the latter are valid only in a court of equity. The lien which the vendor of real estate has on the estate sold, for the purchase money remaining unpaid, is a familiar example of an equitable lien. Math. on Pres. 392. Vide Purchase money. Vide, generally, Yelv. 67, a; 2 Kent, Com. 495; Pal Ag. 107; Whit. on Liens; Story on Ag. ch. 14, 351, et seq: Hov. Fr. 35.

11. Lien of mechanics and material men. By virtue of express statutes in several of the states, mechanics and material men, or persons who furnish materials for the erection of houses or other buildings, are entitled to a lien or preference in the payment of debts out of the houses and buildings so erected, and to the land, to a greater or lessor extent, on which they are erected. A considerable similarity exists in the laws of the different states which have legislated on this subject.

12. The lien generally attaches from the commencement of the work or the furnishing of materials, and continues for a limited period of time. In some states, a claim must be filed in the office of the clerk or prothonotary of the court, or a suit brought within a limited time. On the sale of the building these liens are to be paid pro rata. In some states no lien is created unless the work done or the goods furnished amount to a certain specified sum, while in others there is no limit to the amount. In general, none but the original contractors can claim under the law; sometimes, however, sub-coutractors have the same right.

13. The remedy is various; in some states, it is by scire facias on the lien, in others, it is by petition to the court for an order of sale: in some, the property is subject to foreclosure, as on a mortgage; in others, by a common action. See 1 Hill. Ab. ch. 40, p. 354, where will be found an abstract of the laws of the several states, except the state of Louisiana; for the laws of that state, see Civ. Code of Louis. art. 2727 to 2748. See generally, 5 Binn. 585; 2 Browne, R. 229, n. 275; 2 Rawle R. 316; Id. 343; 3 Rawle, R. 492; 5 Rawle R. 291; 2 Whart. R. 223; 2 S. & R. 138; 14 S. & R. 32; 12 S. & R. 301; 3 Watts, R. 140, 141; Id. 301; 5 Watts, R. 487; 14 Pick. P,. 49; Serg. on Mech. Liens.

LIEU, place. Iu lieu of, instead, in the place of.

LIEUTENANT. This word has now a narrower meaning than it formerly had; its true meaning is a deputy, a substitute, from the French lieu, (place or post) and tenant (holder). Among civil officers we have lieutenant governors, who in certain cases perform the duties of governors; (vide, the names of the several states,) lieutenants of police, &c. Among military men, lieutenant general was formerly the title of a commanding general, but now it signifies the degree above major general. Lieutenant colonel, is the officer between the colonel and the major. Lieutenant simply signifies the officer next below a captain. In the navy, a lieutenant is the second officer next in command to the captain of a ship.

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