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LOSS, contracts. The deprivation of something which one had, which was either advantageous, agreeable or commodious.

2. In cases of partnership, the losses are in general borne by the partners equally, unless stipulations or circumstance's manifest a different intention. Story, Partn. 24. But it is not essential that the partners should all share the losses. They may agree, that if there shall be no profits, but a loss, that the loss shall be borne by one or more of the partners exclusively, and that the others shall, inter se, be exempted from all liabilities for losses. Colly. Partn. 11; Gow, Partn. 9; 3 M. & Wels. 357; 5 Barn. & Ald. 954 Story, Partn. 23.

3. When a thing sold is lost by an accident, as by fire, the loss falls on the owner, res perit domino, and questions not unfrequently arise, as to whether the thing has been delivered and passed to the purchaser, or whether it remains still the property of the seller. See, on this subject, Delivery.

LOSS IN INSURANCE, contracts. A loss is the injury or damage sustained by the insured in consequence of the happening of one or more of the accidents or misfortunes against which the insurer, in consideration of the premium, has undertaken to indemnify the insured. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 1215.

2. These accidents or misfortunes, or perils, as they are usually denom-inated, are all distinctly enumerated in the policy. And no loss, however great or unforeseen, can be a loss with the policy, unless it be the direct and immediate consequence of one or more of these perils, Marsh. Ins. B, 1, c. 12. As to the risks which are within the common policy, see Marsh. Ins. c. 7, s. 2.

3. Every loss is either total or partial.

4. The term total loss is understood in two different senses; natural and legal. In its natural sense it signifies the complete and absolute destruction of the thing inured. In its legal sense, it means, not merely the entire de-struction or deprivation of the thing insured, but also such damage to it, though it specifically remain, as renders it of little or no value to the owner. A loss is also deemed total, if, by the happening of any of the perils or misfortunes insured against, the voyage be lost, or be not worth pursuing, and the projected adventure be frustrated; or if the value of what he saved, be less than the freight. See Dougl. 231; 1 T. R. 608; Id. 187; Str. 1065; 13 East, R. 323; 2 M. & S 374 1 N. R. 236; 1 Wils. 191; 4 T. R. 785 9 East, R. 283; 3 B. & P. 388; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12; 1 T. R. 187.

5. A partial loss, is any loss or damage short of, or not amounting to a total loss, for if it be not the latter it must be the former. See 4 Mass. 374; 6 Mass. 102; Id, 122; Id. 317; 7 Mass. 349; 9 Mass. 20; 12 Mass. 170; 12 Mass. 288; 6 Mass. 479; 8 Mass. 494; 10 Johns. Rep. 487; 8 Johns. 237; 5 Binn. 595; 2 Serg. & Rawle, 553.

6. Partial losses are sometimes denominated average losses, because they are often in the nature of those losses which are the subject of average contributions; and they are distinguished into general and particular averages. See tit. Average.

7. Losses are occasioned in a variety of ways but most usually by the following: 1. By perils of the sea. See tit. Perils of the Sea. 2. By collision, as where one ship drives against, or runs foul of another. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 2. 3. By fire. Marsh. B. 1, c. 12, s. 3. 4. By capture. See tit. Capture; Marsh. Ins. B. 1. c. 12, s. 4; 2 Caines' C. Err. 158; 7 Johns. R. 449; 13 Johns. R. 161; 14 Johns. R. 227; 3 Wheat. 183; 4 Cranch, 43; 6 Mass. 197. 5. By detention of princes. By the terms of the policy, the insurer is liable for all loss occasioned by "arrest or detainments of all kings, princes, and people, of what nation, condition, or quality soever." Under these words, the insurers are liable for all losses occasioned by arrests or detention of the ship, or goods insured, by the authority of any prince or public body claiming to exercise sovereign power, under what pretence soever. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 5. See Embargo; People. 6. By Barratry. Marsh. Ills. B. 1, c. 12, s. 6. See tit. Barratry; 2 Caines' R. 67; Id. 222; 3 Caines' Rep. 1; 1 Johns. R. 229; 8 Johns. R. 209, 2d edit.; 5 Day, 1; 11 Johns. Rep. 40; 13 Johns. Rep. 451; 2 Binn. 574; 2 Dall. 137; 8 Cranch, 39; 3 Wheat. 168. 7. By average by contribution. See Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 7; this Dict. tit. Average. 8., By salvage. See tit. Salvage; Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 8. 9. By the death of animals. If animals, such as horses, cattle, or beasts or birds of curiosity, be insured in their passage by sea, their death, occasioned by tempests, by the shot of an enemy, by jettison in a storm, or by any other extraordinary accident, occasioned by the perils enumerated in the policy, is a loss for which the underwriters are liable. Not so, if it be occasioned by mere disease or natural death. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 10. 10. By fraud. Marsh. Ins. B. 1, c. 12, s. 11. See, generally, Com. Dig. Merchant, E 9, n; Bac. Abr. Merchant, 1. 5

LOST. What was once possessed and cannot now be found.

2. When a bond or other deed was lost, formerly the obligee or plaintiff was compelled to go into equity to seek relief, because there was no remedy a law, the plaintiff being required to make profert in his declaration. 1 Chan. c. 7T. But in process of time courts of law dispensed with profert in such cases, and thereby obtained concurrent jurisdiction with the courts of chancery, so that now the loss of any paper, other than a negotiable note, will not prevent the plaintiff from recovering at law as well as in equity. 3 Atk. 214; 1 Ves. 341; 5 Ves. 235; 6 Ves. 812, 7 Ves. 19; 3 V. & B. 54.

3. When a negotiable note has been lost, equity will grant relief. In such case the claimant must tender an indemnity to the debtor, and file a bill in chancery to compel payment. 7 B. & C. 90; Ryan & Mo. 90; 4 Taunt. 602; 2 Ves. sen. 327; 16 Ves. 430.

LOST PAPERS. When a paper containing an agreement between parties, a will, and the like, has been so mislaid, that after a diligent search it cannot be found, it is said to be lost.

2. When such a document has been lost, and it is required to prove its contents, the party must prove that he has made diligent search, and, in good faith, exhausted all sources of information accessible to him. For this purpose bis own affidavit is sufficient. 1 Atk. 446; 1 Greenl. Ev. 349. On being satisfied of this, the court will allow secondary evidence to be given of its contents. See Evidence.

3. Even a will proved to be lost, may be admitted to probate, upon secondary evidence. 1 Greenl. Ev. 84, 509, 575; 2 Greenl. Ev. 668, a, 2d ed. But the fact of the loss must be proved by the clearest evidence, because it may have been destroyed by the testator animo revocandi. 8 Mete. 487; 2 Addams, 223; 6 Wend. 173; 1 Hagg. Eccl. R. 115; 3 Pick. 67; 5 B. Munroe, 58; 2 Curt. 913.

LOST OR NOT LOST. These words are sometimes inserted in policies of marine insurance. They are used when the underwriter undertakes that if the ship or goods should be lost at the time of the insurance, still the underwriter is liable, provided there is no fraud. Moll. B. 2, c. 7, s. 5; Hildy. on Mar. Ins. 10.

LOT. Anything on which depends the accidental determination of a right by which we acquire or lose something; or it is that which fortuitously deter-mines what we are to acquire. When it can be certainly known what are our rights, we ought never to resort to a decision by lot; but when it is impossible to tell what actually belong to us, as if an estate is divided into three parts and one part given to each of three persons, the proper way to ascertain each one's part is to draw lots. Wolff, Dr. &c., de la Nat. 669.

LOT OF GROUND. A small piece of land in a town or city usually employed for building, a yard, a garden or such other urban use. Lots are in-lots, or those within the boundary of the city or town, and out-lots, those which are out of such boundary, and which are used by some of the inhabitants of such town or city.

LOTTERY. A scheme for the distribution of prizes by chance.

2. In most, if not all of the United States, lotteries not specially authorized by the legislatures of the respective states are prohibited, and the persons concerned in establishing them are subjected to a heavy penalty. This is the case in Alabama, Connecticut Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Vermont and Virginia. ln Louisiana, a license is granted to sell tickets in a lottery not authorized by the legislature of that state, on the payment of $5000, and the license extends only to one lottery. In many of the states, the lotteries authorized by other states, are absolutely prohibited Encycl. Amer. h. t.

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