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PRIZE, mar. law, war. The apprehension and detention at sea, of a ship or other vessel, by authority of a belligerent power, either with the design of appropriating it, with the goods and effects it contains, or with that of becoming master of the whole or a part of its cargo. 1 Rob. Adm. R. 228. The vessel or goods thus taken are also called a prize. Goods taken on land from a public enemy, are called booty, (q. v.) and the distinction between a prize and booty consists in this, that the former is taken at sea and the latter on laud.

2. In order to vest the title of the prize in the cap tors, it must be brought with due care into some convenient port for adjudication by a competent court. The condemnation must be pronounced by a prize court of the government of the captor sitting in the country of the captor, or his ally; the prize court of an ally cannot condemn. Strictly speaking, as between the belligerent parties the title passes, and is vested when the capture is complete; and that was formerly held to be complete and perfect when the battle was over, and the spes recuperandi was gone. 1 Kent, Com. 100; Abbott on Shipp. Index, h. t.; 13 Vin. Ab. 51; 8 Com. Dig. 885; 2 Bro. Civ. Law, 444; Harr. Dig. Ship. and Shipping, X; Merl. Repert. h. t.; Bouv. Inst. Index. h. t. Vide Infra praesidia.

PRIZE, contracts. A reward which is offered to one of several persons who shall accomplish a certain condition; as, if an editor should offer a silver cup to the individual who shall write the best essay in favor of peace.

2. In this case there is a contract subisting between the editor and each person who may write such essay that he will pay the prize to the writer of the best essay. Wolff, Dr. de la Nat. 675.

3. By prize is also meant a thing which is won by putting into a lottery.

PRIZE COURT, Engl. law The name of court which has jurisdiction of all captures made in war on the high seas.

2. In England this is a separate branch of the court of admiralty, the other branch being called the instance court. (q. v.)

3. The district courts of the United States have jurisdiction both as instance and prize courts, there being no distinction in this respect as in England. 3 Dall. 6; vide 1 Gall. R. 563; Bro. Civ. & Adm. Law, ch. 6 & 7; 1 Kent, Com. 356; Mann. Comm. B. 3, c. 12.

PRO. A Latin proposition signifying `for.' As to its effects in contracts, vide Plowd. 412.

PRO AND CON. For and against. For example, affidavits are taken pro and con.

PRO CONFESSO, chan. pract. For confessed.

2. When the defendant has been served personally with a subpoena, or when not being so served has appeared, and afterwards neglects to answer the matter contained in the bill, it shall be taken pro confesso, as if the matter were confessed by the defendant. Blake's Ch. Pr. 80; Newl. Ch. Pr. c. 1, s. 12; 1 Johns. Cb. Rep. 8. It also be taken pro confesso if the manner is sufficient. 4 Vin. Ab. 446 2 Atk. 24 3 Ves. 209; Harr. Ch. Pr. 154. Vide 4 Ves. 619, and the cases there cited.

PRO-CURATORS, PRO-TUTORS. Persons who act as curators or tutors, without being lawfully authorized. They are, in general, liable to all the duties of curators or tutors, and are entitled to none of the advantages which legal curators or tutors can claim.

PRO EO QUOD, pleading. For this that. It is a phrase of affirmation, and is sufficiently direct and positive for introducing a material averment. 1 Saund. 117, n. 4; 1 Com. Dig. Pleader, c. 86 2 Chit. Pl. 369-393 Gould on Pl. c. 3, 34.

PRO INDIVISO. For an undivided part. The possession or occupation of lands or tenements belonging to two or mare persons, and consequently neither knows his several portion till divided: Bract. 1. 5.

PRO QUERENTE. For the plaintiff; usually abbreviated, pro quer.

PRO RATA. According to the rate, proportion or allowance. A creditor of an insolvent estate, is to be paid pro rata with creditors of the same class.

PRO RE NATA. For the occasion as it may arise.

PRO TANTO. For so much. See 17 Serg. & Rawle, 400.

PROAMITA. Great paternal aunt; the sister of one's grandfather. Inst. 3, 6, 3 & 4; Dig. 38, 10, 10, 14, et seq.

PROAVUS. Great grandfather. This term is employed in making genealogical tables.

PROBABILITY. That which is likely to happen; that which is most consonant to reason; for example, there is a strong probability that a man of a good moral character, and who has heretofore been remarkable for truth, will, when examined as a witness under oath, tell the truth; and, on the contrary, that a man who has been guilty of perjury, will not, under the same circumstances, tell the truth; the former will, therefore, be entitled to credit, while the latter will not.

PROBABLE. That which has the appearance of truth; that which appears to be founded in reason.

PROBABLE CAUSE. When there are grounds for suspicion that a person has committed a crime or misdemeanor, and public justice and the good of the community require that the matter should be examined, there is said to be a probable cause for, making a charge against the accused, however malicious the intention of the accuser may have been. Cro. Eliz. 70; 2 T. R. 231; 1 Wend. 140, 345; 5 Humph. 357; 3 B. Munr. 4. See 1 P. S. R. 234; 6 W. & S. 236; 1 Meigs, 84; 3 Brev. 94. And probable cause will be presumed till the contrary appears.

2. In an action, then, for a malicious prosecution, the plaintiff is bound to show total absence of probable cause, whether the original proceedings were civil or criminal. 5 Taunt. 580; 1 Camp. N. P. C. 199; 2 Wils. 307; 1 Chit. Pr. 48; Hamm. N. P. 273. Vide Malicious prosecution, and 7 Cranch, 339; 1 Mason's R. 24; Stewart's Adm. R. 115; 11 Ad. & El. 483; 39 E. C. L. R. 150; 24 Pick.-81; 8 Watts, 240; 3 Wash. C. C. R. 31: 6 Watts & Serg. 336; 2 Wend. 424 1 Hill, S. C. 82; 3 Gill & John. 377; 1 Pick. 524; 8 Mass. 122; 9 Conn. 309; 3 Blackf. 445; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

PROBATE OF A WILL. The proof before an officer appointed by law, that an instrument offered to be recorded is the act of the person whose last will and testament it purports to be. Upon proof being so made and security being given when the laws of the state require such security, the officer grants to the executors or administrators cum testamento annexo, when there been adopted, but provision is made for perare no executors, letters testamentary, or of administration.

2. The officer. who takes such probate is variously denominated; in some states he is called judge of probate. in others register, and surrogate in others. Vide 11 Vin. Ab. 5 8 12 Vin. Ab. 126 2 Supp. to Ves. jr. 227 1 Salk. 302; 1 Phil. Ev. 298; 1 Stark. Ev. 231, note, and the cases cited in the note, and also, 12 John. R. 192; 14 John. R. 407 1 Edw. R. 266; 5 Rawle, R. 80 1 N. & McC. 326; 1 Leigh, R. 287; Penn. R. 42; 1 Pick. R. 114; 1 Gallis. R. 662, as to the effect of a probate on real and personal property,

3. In England, the ecclesiastical courts, which take the probate of wills, have no jurisdiction of devises of land. In a trial at common law, therefore, the original will must be produced, and the probate of a will is no evidence.

4. This rule has been somewhat changed in some of the states. In New York it has petuating the evidence of a will. 12 John. Rep. 192; 14 John. R, 407. In Massachusetts, Connecticut, North Carolina, and Michigan, the probate is conclusive of its validity, and a will cannot be used in evidence till proved. 1 Pick. R. 114; l Gallis. R. 622 1 Mich. Rev. Stat. 275. In Pennsylvania, the probate is not conclusive as to lands, and, although not allowed by the Register's court, it may be read in evidence. 5 Rawle's R. 80. In North Carolina, the will must be proved de novo in the court of common pleas, though allowed by the ordinary. 1 Nott & McCord, 326. In New Jersey, probate is necessary, but it is not conclusive. Penn. R. 42.

5. The probate is a judicial act, and while unimpeached, authorizes debtors of the deceased in paying the debts they owed him, to the executors although the will may, have been forged. 3 T. R. 125; see 8 East, Rep. 187. Vide Letters testamentary.

PROBATION. The evidence which proves a thing. It is either by record, writing, the party's own oath, or the testimony of witnesses. Proof. (q. v.) It also signifies the time of a novitiate; a trial. Nov. 5.

PROBATOR. Ancient English law. Strictly, an accomplice in felony, who to save himself confessed the fact, and charged or accused any other as principal or accessary, against whom he was bound to make good his charge. It also signified an approver, or one who undertakes to prove a crime charged upon another. Jacob's Law Dict. h. t.

PROBATORY TERM. In the British courts of admiralty, after the issue is formed between the parties, a time for taking the testimony is assigned, this is called a probatory term.

2. This term is common to both parties, and either party may examine his witnesses. When good cause is shown the term will be enlarged. 2 Bro. Civ. and Adm. Law, 418 Dunl. Pr. 217.

PROBI ET LEGALES HOMINES. Good and lawful men; persons competent in point of law to serve on juries. Cro. Eliz. 654, 751; Cro. Jac. 635; Mart. & Yerg. 147; Hardin, 63; Bac. Ab. Juries, A.

PROBITY. Justice, honesty. A man of probity is one who loves justice and honesty, and who dislikes the contrary. Wolff, Dr. de la Nat. 772. ,

PROCEDENDO, practice. A writ which issues where an action is removed from an inferior to a superior jurisdiction by habeas corpus, certiorari or writ of privilege, and it does not appear to such superior court that the suggestion upon which the cause has been removed, is sufficiently proved; in which case the superior court by this writ remits the cause to the court from whence it came, commanding the inferior court to proceed to the final hearing and determination of the same. See 1 Chit. R. 575; 2 Bl. R. 1060 1 Str. R. 527; 6 T. R. 365; 4 B. & A. 535; 16 East, R. 387.

PROCEEDING. In its general acceptation, this word means the form in which actions are to be brought and defended, the manner of intervening in suits, of conducting them, the mode of deciding them, of opposing judgments and of executing.

2. Proceediugs are ordinary and summary. 1. By ordinary proceedings are understood the regular and usual mode of carrying on, a suit by due course at common law. 2. Summary proceedings are those when the matter in dispute is decided without the intervention of a jury; these must be authorized by the legislature, except perhaps in cages of contempts, for such proceedings are unknown to the common law.

3. In Louisiana, there is a third kind of proceeding, known by the name of executory proceeding, which is resorted to in the following cases: 1. When the creditor's right arises from an act importing a confession of judgment, and which contains a privilege or mortgage in his favor. 2. When the creditor demands the execution of a judgment which has been rendered by a tribunal different from that within whose jurisdiction the execution is sought. Code of Practice, art. 732.

4. In New York the code of practice divides remedies into actions and special proceedings. An action is a regular judicial proceeding, in which one party prosecutes another party for the enforcement or protection of a right, the redress or prevention of a wrong, or the punishment of a public offence. Every other remedy is a special proceeding. 2.

PROCERES. The name by which the chief magistrates in cities were formerly known. St. Armand, Hist. Eq. 88.

PROCES VERBAL, French law. A true relation in writing in due form of law of what has been done and said verbally in the presence of a public officer, and what he himself does upon the occasion. It is a species of inquisition of office.

2. The proces verbal should be dated, contain the name, qualities, and residence of the public functionary who makes it, the cause of complaint, the existence of the crime, that which serves to substantiate the charge, point out its nature, the time, the place, the circumstances, state the proofs and presumptions, describe the place, in a word, everything calculated to ascertain the truth. It must be signed by the officer. Dall. Dict. h. t.

PROCESS, practice. So denominated because it proceeds or issues forth in order to bring the defendant into court, to answer the charge preferred against him, and signifies the writ or judicial means by which he is brought to answer. 1 Paine, R. 368 Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

2. In the English law, process in civil causes is called original process, when it is founded upon the original writ; and also to distinguish it from mesne or intermediate process, wliich issues pending the suit, upon some collateral interlocutory matter, as, to summon juries, witnesses,, and the like; mesne process is also sometimes put in contradistinction to final process, or process of execution; and then it signifies all process which intervenes between the beginning and end of a suit. 3 Bl. Com. 279.

3. In criminal cases that proceeding which is called a warrant, before the finding of the bill, is termed process when issued after the indictment has been found by the jury. Vide 4 Bl. Com. 319; Dalt. J. c. 193; Com. Dig. Process, A 1; Burn's Dig. Process; Williams, J, Process; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 338; 17 Vin. Ab. 585.

4. The word process in the 12th section of the 5th article of the constitution of Pennsylvania, which provides that "the style of all process shall be The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania," was intended to refer to such writs only as should become necessary to be issued in the course of the exercise of that judicial power which is established and provided for in the article of the constitution, and forms exclusively the subject matter of it. 3 Penns. R. 99.

PROCESS, rights. The means or method of accomplishing a thing.

2. It has been said that the word manufacture, (q. v.) in the patent laws, may, perhaps, extend to a new process, to be carried on by known implements, or elements, acting upon known substances, and ultimately producing some other known substance, but producing it in a cheaper or more expeditious manner, or of a better and more useful kind. 2 B. & Ald. 349. See Perpigna, Manuel des Inventeurs, &c., c. 1; s. 5, 1, p. 22, 4th ed.; Manufacture; Method.

PROCESS, MESNE, pradice. By this term is generally understood any writ issued in the course of a suit between the original process and execution.

2. By this term is also meant the writ or proceedings in an action to summon or bring the defendant into court, or compel him to appear or put in bail, and then to hear and answer the plaintiffs claim. 3 Chit. Pr. 140.

PROCESS OF GARMISHMENT, practice. It was formerly the practice to deposit deeds and other things in the hands of third persons, to await the performance of covenants, upon which they were to be re-delivered to one of the parties. When one of the parties contended that he was entitled to such things, and the other denied it, and the claiming party brought an action of detinue for them, the defendant was allowed to in terplead, and thereupon he prayed for a monition or notice to compel the other depositor to appear and become a defendant in his stead. This was called a process of garnishment. 3 Reeves, Hist. Eng. Law, eh. 23, p. 448.

PROCESS OF INTERPLEADER, practice. Formerly when two parties concurred in a bailment to a third person of things which were to be delivered to one of them on the performance of a covenant or other thing, and the parties brought several actions of detinue against the bailee, the latter might plead the facts of the case and pray that the plaintiffs in the several actions might interplead with each other; this was called process of interpleader. 3 Reeves, Hist. Law, eh. 23; Mitford, Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 141; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. 802.

PROCESSIONING. A term used in Tennessee to signify the manner of ascertaining the boundaries of land, as provided for by the laws of that state. Carr. & Nich. Comp. of Stat. of Tenn. 348. The term is also used in North Carolina. 3 Murph. 504; 3 Dev. 268.

PROCHEIN. Next. This word is frequently used in composition; as, prochein amy, prochein cousin, and the like. Co. Lit. 10.

PROCHEIN AMY, more correctly prochain ami. Next friend.

2. He who, without being appointed guardian, sues in the name of an infant for the recovery of the rights of the latter, or does such other acts as are authorized by law; as, in Pennsylvania, to bind the infant apprentice. 3 Serg. & Rawle, 172; 1 Ashm. Rep. 27. For some of the rules with respect to the liability or protection of a prochein amy, see 4 Madd. 461; 2 Str. 709; 3 Madd. 468; 1 Dick. 346; 1 Atk. 570; Mosely, 47, 85; 1 Ves. Jr. 409; 10 Ves. 184; 7 Ves. 425; Edw. on Parties, 182 to 204.

PROCLAMATION, evidence. The act of causing some state matters to be published or made generally known. A written or printed document in which are contained such matters, issued by proper authority; as the president's proclamation, the governor's, the mayor's proclamation. The word proclamation is also used to express the public nomination made of any one to a high office; as, such a prince was proclaimed emperor.

2. The president's proclamation has not the force of law, unless when authorized by congress; as if congress were to pass an act, which should take effect upon the happening of a contingent event, which was to be declared by the president by proclamation to hive happened; in this case the proclamation would give the act the force of law, which, till then, it wanted. How far a proclamation is evidence of facts, see Bac. Ab. Ev. F; Dougl. 594, n; B. N. P. 226; 12 Mod. 216; 8 State Tr. 212; 4 M. & S. 546; 2 Camp. Rep. 44; Dane's Ab. eh. 96, a. 2, 3 and 4; 1 Scam. R. 577; Bro. h. t.

PROCLAMATION, practice. The declaration made by the cryer, by authority of the court, that something is about to be done.

2. It usually commences with the French word Oyez, do you hear, in order to attract attention; it is particularly used on the meeting or opening of the court, and at its adjournment; it is also frequently employed to discharge persons who have been accused of crimes or misdemeanors.

PROCLAMATION OF EXIGENTS, Eng. law. On awarding an exigent, in order to outlawry, a writ of proclamation issues to the sheriff of the county where the party dwells, to make three proclamations for the defendant to yield himself, or be outlawed.

PROCLAMATION OF REBELLION, Eng. law. When a party neglects to appear upon a subpoena, or an attachment in the chancery, a writ bearing this name issues, and if he does not surrender himself by the day assigned, he is reputed, and declared a rebel.

PROCREATION. The generation of children; it is an act authorized by the law of nature: one of the principal ends of marriage is the procreation of children. Inst. tit. 2, in pr.

PROCTOR. One appointed to represent in judgment the party who empowers him, by writing under his hand called a proxy. The term is used chiefly in the courts of civil and ecclesiastical law. The proctor is somewhat similar to the attorney. Avl. Parerg. 421.

PROCURATION, civil law. The act by which one person gives power to another to act in his place, as he could do himself. A letter of attorney.

2. Procurations are either express or implied; an express procuration is one made by the express consent of the parties; the implied or tacit takes place when an individual sees another managing his affairs, and does not interfere to prevent it. Dig. 17, 1, 6, 2; Id. 50, 17, 60; Code 7, 32, 2.

3. Procurations are also divided into those which contain absolute power, or a general authority, and those which give only a limited power. Dig. 3, 3, 58; Id. 17, 1, 60, 4 4. The procurations are ended in three ways first, by the revocation of the authority; secondly, by the death of one of the parties; thirdly, by the renunciation of the mandatory, when it is made in proper time and place, and it can be done without injury to the person who gave it. Inst. 3, 27 Dig. 17, 1; Code 4, 35; and see Authority; Letter of Attorney; Mandate.

PROCURATIONS, eccles. law. Certain sums of money which parish priests pay yearly to the bishops or archdeacons ratione visitationis. it 3, 39, 25; Ayl. Parerg. 429; 17 Vin. Ab. h. t., pa e 544.

PROCURATOR, civil law. A proctor; a person who acts for another by virtue of a procuration. Procurator est, qui aliena negotia mandata Domini administrat. Dig 3, 3, 1. Vide Attorney; Authority.

PROCURATOR in rem suam. Scotch law. This imports that one is acting as attorney as to his own property. When an assignment of a thing is made, as a debt, and a procuration or power of attorney is given to the assignee to receive the same, he is in such case procurator in rein suam. 3 Stair's Inst. 1, 2, 3, &c.; 3 Ersk. 5, 2; 1 Bell's Com. B. 5, c. 2, s. 1, 2.

PROCURATORIUM. The proxy or instrument by which a proctor is constituted and appointed.

PRODIGAL, civil law, persons. Prodigals were persons who, though of full age, were incapable of managing their affairs, and of the obligations which attended them, in consequence of their bad conduct, and for whom a curator was therefore appointed.

2. In Pennsylvania, by act of assembly, an habitual drunkard is deprived of the management of his affairs, when he wastes his property, and his estate is placed in the bands of a committee.

PRODITORIE. Treasonably. This is a technical word formerly used in indictments for treason, when they were written in Latin.

PRODUCENT. He who produces a witness to be examined. The term is used in the ecclesiastical courts.

PROFANE. That which has not been consecrated. By a profane place is understood one which is neither sacred, nor sanctified, nor religious. Dig. 11, 7, 2, 4. Vide Things.

PROFANELY. In a profane manner. In an indictment, under the act of assembly of Pennsylvania, against profanity, it is requisite that the words should be laid to have been spoken profanely. 11 S. & R. 394.

PROFANENESS or PROFANITY, crim. law. A disrespect to the name of God, or his divine providence. This is variously punished by statute in the several states.

PROFECTITUS, civil law. That which descends to us from our ascendants. Dig. 23, 3, 5.

PROFERT IN CURIA, plead. Produces in court.

2. When the plaintiff declares on a deed, or the defendant pleads a deed, and makes title under it, be must do it with a profert in curia, by declaring that he " brings here into court, the said writing obligatory," or other deed.

3. The object of this is to enable the court to inspect the instrument pleaded, the construction and legal effect of which is matter of law, and to entitle the adverse party to oyer of it; 10 Co. 92, b.; 1 Chit. Pl. 414; 1 Archb. Pr. 164; but one who pleads a deed of any kind, without making title under it, is not bound to make profert of it. Gould on Pl. oh. 7, part 2, 47. To the above rule that he who declares on, or pleads a deed, and makes title under it, must make profert of it, there are several exceptions, all of which are founded on the pleader's actual or presumed inability to produce the instrument. A stranger to a deed, therefore, may in general plead it, and make title under it, without profert. Com. Dig. Pleader, 0 8; Cro. Jac. 217; Cro. Car. 441; Carth. 316. Also he who claims title by operation of law, under a deed, to another, may plead the deed without profert. Co. Litt. 225; Bac. Abr. Pleas, I 12; 5 Co. 75. When the deed is in the hands of the opposite party, or destroyed by him, no profert need be made; or when it has been lost or destroyed by time or casualty.

4. In all these cases, to excuse the want of a profert, the special facts which bring the case within the exception, should be alleged in the party's pleadings. Vide Gould, Pl. ch. 8, part 2; Lawes' Pl. 96; 1. Saund. 9, a, note.

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