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PROPERTY. The right and interest which a man has in lands and chattels to the exclusion of others. 6 Binn. 98; 4 Pet. 511; 17 Johns. 283; 14 East, 370; 11 East, 290, 518. It is the right to enjoy and to dispose of certain things in the most absolute manner as he pleases, provided he makes no use of them prohibited by law. See Things.

2. All things are not the subject of property the sea, the air, and the like, cannot be appropriated; every one may enjoy them, but he has no exclusive right in them. When things are fully our own, or when all others are excluded from meddling with them, or from interfering about them, it is plain that no person besides the proprietor, who has this exclusive right, can have any, claim either to use them, or to hinder him from disposing of them as, he pleases; so that property, considered as an exclusive right to things, contains not only a right to use those things, but a right to dispose of them, either by exchanging them for other things, or by giving them away to any other person, without any consideration, or even throwing them away. Rutherf. Inst. 20; Domat, liv. prel. tit. 3; Poth. Des Choses; 18 Vin. Ab. 63; 7 Com. Dig. 175; Com. Dig. Biens. See also 2 B. & C. 281; S. C. 9 E. C. L. R. 87; 3 D. & R. 394; 9 B. & C. 396; S. C. 17 E. C. L. R. 404; 1 C. & M. 39; 4 Call, 472; 18 Ves. 193; 6 Bing. 630.

3. Property is divided into real property, (q. v.) and personal property. (q. v.) Vide Estate; Things.

4. Property is also divided, when it consists of goods and chattels, into absolute and qualified. Absolute property is that which is our own, without any qualification whatever; as when a man is the owner of a watch, a book, or other inanimate thing: or of a horse, a sheep, or other animal, which never had its natural liberty in a wild state.

5. Qualified property consists in the right which men have over wild animals which they have redueed to their own possession, and which are kept subject to their power; as a deer, a buffalo, and the like, which are his own while he has possession of them, but as soon as his possession is lost, his property is gone, unless the animals, go animo revertendi. 2 Bl. Com. 396; 3 Binn. 546.

6. But property in personal goods may be absolute or qualified without ally relation to the nature of the subject-matter, but simply because more persons than one have an interest in it, or because the right of property is separated from the possession. A bailee of goods, though not the owner, has a qualified property in them; while the owner has the absolute property. Vide, Bailee; Bailment.

7. Personal property is further divided into property in possession, and property or choses in action. (q. v.)

8. Property is again divided into corporeal and incorporeal. The former comprehends such property as is perceptible to the senses, as lands, houses, goods, merchandise and the like; the latter consists in legal rights, as choses in action, easements, and the like.

9. Property is lost, in general, in three ways, by the act of man, by the act of law, and by the act of God.

10. - 1. It is lost by the act of man by, 1st. Alienation; but in order to do this, the owner must have a legal capacity to make a contract. 2d. By the voluntary abandonment of the thing; but unless the abandonment be purely voluntary, the title to the property is not lost; as, if things be thrown into the sea to save the ship, the right is not lost. Poth. h. t., n. 270; 3 Toull. ii. 346. But even a voluntary abandonment does not deprive the former owner from taking possessiou of the thing abandoned, at any time before another takes possession of it.

11. - 2. The title to property is lost by operation of law. 1st. By the forced sale, under a lawful process, of the property of a debtor to satisfy a judgment, sentence, or decree rendered against him, to compel him to fulfil his obligations. 2d. By confiscation, or sentence of a criminal court. 3d. By prescription. 4th. By civil death. 6th. By capture of a public enemy.

12. - 3. The title to property is lost by the act of God, as in the case of the death of slaves or animals, or in the total destruction of a thing; for example, if a house be swallowed up by an opening in the earth during an earthquake.

13. It is proper to observe that in some cases, the moment that the owner loses his possession, he also loses his property or right in the thing: animals ferae naturae, as mentioned above, belong to the owner only while he retains the possession of them. But, in general,' the loss of possession does not impair the right of property, for the owner may recover it within a certain time allowed by law. Vide, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, b. t.

PROPINQUITY. Kindred; parentage. Vide. Affinity; Consanguinity; Next of kin.

PROPIOS, or PROPRIOS, Span. law. Certain portions of ground laid off and reserved when a town was founded in Spanish America, as the unalienable property of the town, for the purpose of erecting public buildings, markets, &c., or to be used in any other way, under the direction of the municipality, for the advancement of the revenues, or the prosperity of the place. 12 Peters' R. 442, note.

PROPONENT, eccl. law. One who propounds a telling as "the party proponent doth allege and propound." 6 Eng. Ecclesiastical R. 356, n.

PROPOSAL. An offer for consideration or acceptance.

2. It is a general rule that a proposal offered to another for acceptance may be withdrawn at any time before it is accepted, provided that notice of the withdrawal be given to the party to whom it was made. A bid (q. v.) may be withdrawn at any time before acceptance; and a proposal by letter may be withdrawn at any time before, acceptance 1 Pick. 278; and, if accepted, it must be, in the very terms offered. 3 Wheat. 225. Vide Bid; Correspondence; Letter; Offer.

PROPOSITION. An offer to do something. Until it has been accepted, a proposition may be withdrawn by the party who makes it; and to be binding, the acceptance must be in the same terms, without any variation. Vide Acceptance; Offer; To retract; and 1 L. R. 190; 4 L. R. 80.

PROPOSITUS. The person proposed. In making genealogical tables, the person whose relations it is desirous to find out, is called the propositus.

TO PROPOUND. To offer, to propose; as, the onus probandi in every case lies upon the party who propounds ia will. 1 Curt. R. 637; 6 Eng. Eccl. R. 417.

PROPRES, French law. The term propres or biens propres, is used to denote that property which has come to an individual from his relations, either in a direct line, ascending or descending, or from a collateral line, whether the same have come by operation of law or by devise. Propres is used. in opposition to acquets. Poth. Des. Propres; 2 Burge, Confl. of Laws, 61; 2 L. R. S.

PROPRIA PERSONA. In his own person. It is a rule in pleading that pleas to the jurisdiction of the court must be pleaded in propria persona, because, if pleaded by attorney, they admit the jurisdiction, as an attorney is an officer of the court, and he is presumed to plead after having obtained leave, which admits the jurisdiction. Lawes on Pl. 91.

2. An appearance may be in propria persona, and need not be by attorney.

PROPRIETARY. In its strict sense, this word signifies one who is master of his actions, and who has the free disposition of his property. During the colonial government of Pennsylvania, William Penn was called the proprietary.

2. The domain which William Penn and his family had in the state, was, during the Revolutionary war, divested by the act of June 28, 1779, from that family and vested in the commonwealth for the sum which the latter paid to them of one hundred and thirty thousand pounds sterling.

PROPRIETATE PROBANDA. The name of a writ. See De proprietate probanda.

PROPRIETOR. The owner. (q. v.)

PROPRIO VIGORE. By its own force or vigor. This expression is frequently used in construction. A phrase is said to have a certain meaning proprio vigore.

PROPTER AFFECTUM. For or on account of some affection or prejudice. A juryman may be challenged propter affectum; as, because he is related to the party has eaten at his expense, and the like. See Challenge, practice.

PROPTER AFFECTUM. On account or for some defect. This phrase is frequently used in relation to challenges. A juryman may be challenged propter defectum; as, that he is a minor, an alien, and the like. See Challenge, practice.

PROPTER DELICTUM. For or on account of crime. A juror may be challenged propter delictum, when he has been convicted of an infamous crime. See Challenge, practice.

PROROGATED JURISDICTION, Scotch law. That jurisdiction, which, by the consent of the parties, is conferred upon a judge, who, without such consent, would be incompetent. Ersk. Prin. B. 1, t. 2, n. 15.

2. At common law, when a party is entitled to some privilege or exemption from jurisdiction, he may waive it, and then the jurisdiction is complete; but the consent cannot give jurisdiction. PROROGATION. To put off to another time. It is generally applied to the English parliament, and means the continuance of it from one day to another; it differs from adjournment, which is a continuance of it from one day to another in the same session. 1 Bl. Com. 186.

2. In the civil law, prorogation signifies the time given to do a thing beyond the term prefixed. Dig. 2, 14, 27, 1. See Prolongation.

PROSCRIBED, civil law. Among the Romans, a man was said to be proscribed when a reward was offered for his head; but the term was more usually applied to those who were sentenced to some punishment which carried with it the consequences of civil death. Code, 9; 49.

PROSECUTION, crim. law. The means adopted to bring a supposed offender to justice and punishment by due course of law.

2. Prosecutions are carried on in the name of the government, and have for their principal object the scourity and happiness of the people in general. Hawk. B. 2, c. 25, s. 3; Bac. Ab. Indictment, A 3.

3. The modes most usually employed to carry them on, are by indictment; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 132; presentment of a grand jury; Ibid. 133; coroner's inquest; Ibid. 134; and by an information. Vide Merl. Repert. mot Accusation.

PROSECUTOR, practice. He who prosecutes another for a crime in the name of the government.

2. Prosecutors are public or private. The public prosecutor is an officer appointed by the government, to prosecute all offences; he is the attorney general or his deputy.

3. A private prosecutor is one who prefers an accusation against a party whom be suspects to be guilty. Every man may become a prosecutor, but no man is bound except in some few of the more enormous offences, as treason, to be one but if the prosecutor should compound a felony, he will be guilty of a crime. The prosecutor has an inducement to prosecute, because he cannot, in many cases, have any civil remedy until he has done his duty to society by an endeavor to bring the offender to justice. If a prosecutor act from proper motives, me will not be responsible to the party in damages, though he was mistaken in his suspicions; but if, from a motive of revenge, he institute a criminal prosecution without any reasonable foundation, he may be punished by being mulcted in damages in an action for a malicious prosecution.

4. In Pennsylvania a defendant is not bound to plead to an indictment where there is a private prosecutor, until his name shall have been indorsed on the indictment as such, and on acquittal of the defendant, in all cases except where the charge is for a felony, the jury may direct that he shall pay the costs. Vide 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 1 to 10; 1 Phil. Ev. Index, h. t.; 2 Virg. Cas. 3, 20; 1 Dall. 5; 2 Bibb. 210; 6 Call. 245; 5 Rand. 669; and the article Informer.

PROSPECTIVE. That which is applicable to the future; it is used in opposition to retrospective. To be just, a law ought always to be prospective. 1 Bouv. Inst. n. 116.

PROSTITUTION. The common lewdness of a woman for gain.

2. In all well regulated communities this has been considered a heinous offence, for which the woman may be punished, and the keeper of a house of prostitution may be indicted for keeping a common nuisance.

3. So much does the law abhor this offence, that a landlord cannot recover for the use and occupation of a house let for the purpose of prostitution. 1 Esp. Cas. 13; 1 Bos. & Pull. 340, n.

4. In a figurative sense, it signifies the bad use which a corrupt judge makes of the law, by making it subservient to his interest; as, the prostitution of the law, the prostitution of justice.

PROTECTION, merc. law, The name of a document generally given by notaries public, to sailors and other persons going abroad, in which is certified that the bearer therein named, is a citizen of the United States.

PROTECTION, government. That benefit or safety which the government affords to the citizens.

PROTECTION, Eng. law. A privilege granted by the king to a party to an action, by which he is protected from a judgment which would otherwise be rendered against him. Of these protections there are several kinds. F. N. B. 65.

PROTEST, mar. law. A writing, attested by a justice of the peace or a consul, drawn by the master of a vessel, stating the severity of a voyage by which a ship has suffered, and showing it was not owing to the neglect or misconduct of the master. Vide Marsh. Ins. 715, 716. See 1 Wash. C. R. 145; Id. 238; Id. 408, n.; 1 Pet. C. R. 119; 1 Dall. 6; Id. 10; Id. 317; 2 Dall. 195; 3 Watts & Serg. 144; 3 Binn. 228, n.; 1 Yeates, 261.

PROTEST, legislation. A declaration made by one or more members of a legis lative body that they do not agree with some act or resolution of the body; it is usual to add the reasons which the protestants have for such a dissent.

PROTEST, contracts. A notarial act, made for want of payment of a promissory note, or for want of acceptance or payment of a bill of exchange, by a notary public, in which it is declared that all parties to such instruments will be held responsible to the holder for all damages, exchanges, reexchanges, &c.;

2. There are two kinds of protest, namely, protest for non-acceptance, and protest for non-payment. When a protest is made and notice of the non-payment or non-acceptance given to the parties in proper time, they will be held responsible. 3 Kent, Com. 63; Chit. on Bills, 278; 3 Pardes. n. 418 to 441; Merl. Repert. h. t.; COID. Dig. Merchant, F 8, 9, 10; Bac. Ab. Merchant, &c. M 7.

3. There is also a species of protest, common in England, which is called protest for better security. It may be made when a merchant who has accepted a bill becomes insolvent, or is publicly reported to have failed in his credit, or absents himself from change, before the bill he has accepted becomes due, or when the holder has any just reason to suppose it will not be paid; and on demand the acceptor refuses to give it. Notice of such protest must, as in other cases, be sent by the first post. 1 Ld. Raym. 745; Mar. 27.

4. In making the protest, three things are to be done: the noting; demanding acceptance or payment or, as above, better security and drawing up the protest. 1. The noting, (q. v.) is unknown to the law as distinguished from the protest. 2. The demand, (q. v.) which must be made by a person having authority to receive the money. 3. The drawing up of the protest, which is a mere matter of form. Vide Acceptance; Bills of Exchange.

PROTESTANDO, pleading. According to Lord Coke, Co. Litt. 124, it is an exclusion of a conclusion. It has been more fully defined to be a saving to the party who takes it, from being concluded by any matter alleged or objected against him, upon which he cannot join issue. Plowd. 276, b; Finch's L. 359, 366, Lawes, Pl. 141.

2. Matter on which issue may be joined, whether it be the gist of the action, plea, replication or other pleading, cannot be taken by protestation; Plowd. Com. 276, b; although a man may take by protestation matter that he cannot plead, as in an action for taking goods of the value of one hundred dollars, the defendatn may make protestation that they were not worth more than fifty dollars. It is obvious that a protestation, repugnant to or inconsistent with the gist of the plea, &c., cannot be of any benefit to the party making it. Bro. Abr. tit. Protestation, pl. 1, 5. It is also idle and superfluous to make protestation of the same thing that is traversed by the plea; Plowd. 276, b: or of any matter of fact which must necessarily depend upon another fact protested against; as, to protest that A made no will, and that he made no executor, which he could not do if there was no will. Id.

3. The common form of making a protestando is in these words, "Because pro- testing that," &c., excluding such matters of the adversary's pleading as are intended to be excluded in the protestando, if it be matter of fact; or if it be against the legal sufficiency of his pleading, "Because protesting that the plea by him above pleaded in bar, or by way of reply, or rejoinder, &c., as the case may be, is wholly insufficient in law." No answer is necessary to a protestando, because it is never to be tried in the action in which it is made, but of such as is excluded from any manner of consideration in that action. Lawes' Civ. Pl. 143.

4. Protestations are of two sorts; first, when a man pleads anything which he dares not directly affirm, or cannot plead for fear of making his plea double; as if, in conveying to himself by his plea a title to land, the defendant ought to plead divers descents from several persons, but dares not affirm that they were all seised at the time of their death; or, although he could do so, it would make his plea double to allege two descents, when one descent would be a sufficient bar, then the defendant ought to plead and allege the matter introducing the word "protesting," thus, protesting that such a one died seised, &c., and this the adverse party cannot traverse.

5. The other sort of protestation is, when a person is to answer two matters, and yet by law he can only plead one of them, then in the beginning of his plea he may say, protesting or not acknowledging such part of the matter to be true, and add, "but for plea in this behalf," &c., and so take issue, or traverse, or plead to the other part of the matter; and by this he is not concluded-by any of the rest of the matter, which he has by protestation so denied, but may afterwards take issue upon it. Reg. Plac. 70, 71; 2 Saund. 103 a, n. 1. See 1 Chit. Pl. 534; Arch. Civ. Pl. 245; Doct. Pl. 402; Com. Dig. Pleader, N; Vin. Abr. Protestation Steph. Pl. 235.

PROTESTATION. An asseveration made by taking God to witness. A protestation is a form of asseveration which approaches very nearly to an oath. Wolff, Inst. 375.

PROTHONOTARY. The title given to an officer who officiates as principal clerk of some courts. Vin Ab. h. t.

2. In the ecclesiastical law, the name of prothonotary is given to an officer of the court of Rome, he is so called because he is the first notary; the Greek word prootos signifying primus or first. These notaries have preeminence over the other notaries, and, are put in the rank of prelates. There are twelve of them. Dict. de Jur. h. t.

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