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QUARANTINE, commerce, crim. law. The space of forty days, or a less quantity of time, during which the crew of a ship or vessel coming from a port or place infected or supposed to be infected with discase, are required to remain on board after their arrival, before they can be permitted to land.

2. The object of the quarantine is to ascertain whether the crew are infected or not.

3. To break the quarantine without legal authority is a misdemeanor. 1 Russ. on Cr. 133.

4. In cases of insurance of ships, the insurer is responsible when the insurance extends to her being moored in port 24 hours in safety, although she may have arrived, if before the 24 hours are expired she is ordered to perform quarantine, if any accident contemplated by the policy occur 1 Marsh. on Ins. 264.

QUARANTINE, inheritances, rights. The space of forty days during which a widow has a right to remain in her late hushand's principal mansion, immediately after his death. The right of the widow is also called her quarantine.

2. In some, perhaps all the states of the United States, provision has been expressly made by statute securing to the widow this right for a greater or lesser space of time in Massachusetts, Mass. Rev. St. 411, and New York, 4 Kent, Com. 62, the widow is entitled to the mansion house for forty days. In Ohio, for one year, Walk. Intr. 231, 324. In Alabama, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, New Jersey, Rhode Island and Virginia, she may occupy till dower is assigned; in Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, New Jersey and Virginia, she may also occupy the plantation or messuage. In Pennsylvania the statute of 9 Hen. III., c. 7, is in force, Rob. Dig. 176, by which it is declared that "a widow shall tarry in the chief house of her hushand forty days after his death, within which, her dower shall be assigned her." In Massachusetts the widow is entitled to support for forty days in North Carolina for one year.

3. Quarantine is a personal right, forfeited by implication of law, by a second marriage. Co. Litt. 82. See Ind. Rev. L. 209; 1 Virg. Rev. C. 170,; Ala. L. 260; Misso. St. 229; Ill. Rev. L. 237; N. J. Rev. C. 397 1 Ken. Rev. L. 573. See Bac. Ab. Dower, B; Co. Litt. 32, b; Id, 34, b 2 Inst. 16, 17.

QUARE, pleadings. Wherefore. This word is sometimes used in the writ in certain actions, but is inadmissible in a material averment in the pleadings, for it is merely interrogatory and, therefore, when a declaration began with complaining of the defendant, "wherefore with force, &c. he broke and entered" the plaintiff's close, was considered ill. Bac. Ab. Pleas, B 5, 4; Gould on Pl. c. 3, 34.

QUARE CLAUSUM FREGIT. Wherefore he broke the close. In actions of trespass to real estate the defendant is charged with breaking the close of the plain-tiff. Formerly the original writ in such a case was a writ of trespass quare clausum fregit, now the charge of breaking the close is laid in the declaration. See Close; Trespass.

QUARE EJECIT INFRA TERMINUM. Wherefore did he eject within the term. The name of a writ which lies for a 1essee, who has been turned out of his farm before the expiration of his term or lease, Against the feoffee of the land, or the lessor who ejects him. This has given way to the action of ejectment. 3 Bl. Com. 207.

QUARE IMPEDIT, Eng. eccl. law. The name of a writ directed by the king to the sheriff, by which he is required to command certain persons by name to permit him, the king, to present a fit person to a certain church, which is void, and which belongs to his gift, and of which the said defendants hinder the king, as it is said, and unless, &c. then to summon, &c. the defendants so that they be and appear, &c. F. N. B. 74.

QUARE OBSTRUXIT. The name of a writ formerly used in favor of one who having a right to pass through his neighbor's grounds, was prevented enjoying such right, because the owner of the grounds had obstructed the way. T. L.

QUARREL. A dispute; a difference. In law, particularly in releases, which are taken most Bly against the releasor, when a man releases all quarrels he is said to release all actions, real and personal. 8 Co. 153.

QUARRY. A place whence stones are dug for the purpose of being employed in building, making roads, and the like.

2. When a farm is let with an open quarry, the tenant may, when not restrained by his contract, take out the stone, but he has no right to open new quarries. Vide Mines. Waste.

QUART, measures. A quart is a liquid measure containing one-fourth part of a gallon.

QUARTER. A measure of length, equal to four inches. Vide Measure.

To QUARTER. A barbarous punishment formerly inflicted on criminals by tearing them to pieces by means of four horses, one attached to each limb.

QUARTER DAY. One of the four days of the year on which rent payable quarterly becomes due.

QUARTER DOLLAR, money. A silver coin of the United States of the value of twenty-five cents.

2. It weighs one hundred and threee and one-eighth grains. Of one thousand parts, nine hundred are of pure silver and one hundred of alloy. Act of January 18, 1837, s. 8 and 9, 4 Sharsw. L. U. S. 2523, 4. Vide Money.

QUARTER EAGLE, money. A gold coin of the United States of the value of two dollars and a half.

2. It weighs sixty-four and one-half grains. Of one thousapd parts, nine hundred are of pure gold, and one hundred of alloy. Act of January, 18, 1837, S. 8 and 10, 4 Sharsw. cont. of Story's L. U. S. 2523, 4. Vide Money.

QUARTER SEAL. The seal kept by the director of the chancery in Scotland is so called. It is in the shape and impression of the fourth part of the great seal. Bell's Scotch Law Diet. h. t.

QUARTER SESSIONS.A court bearing this name, mostly invested with the trial of criminals. It takes its name from sitting quarterly or once in three months.

2. The English courts of quarter sessions were erected during the reign of Edward III. Vide Stat. 36 Edward III. Crabb's Eng. L. 278.

QUARTER YEAR. In the computation of time, a quarter year consists of ninety-one days. Co. Litt. 135 b; 2 Roll. Ab. 521, l. 40; Rev. Stat. of N. Y. part 1, c. 19, t. 1, 3.

QUARTERING OF SOLDIERS. The constitution of the United States, Amendm. art. 3, provides that "no soldier shall in time of peace be quartered, in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war but in a manner to be prescribed by law." By quartering is understood boarding and lodging or either. Encycl. Amer. h. t.

QUARTEROON. One who has had one of his grand parents of the black or African race.

QUARTO DIE POST. The fourth day inclusive after the return day of the writ is so called. This is the day of appearance given ex gracia curiae.

TO QUASH, practice. To overthrow or annul.

2. When proceedings are clearly irregular and void the courts will quash them, both in civil and criminal cases: for example, when the array is clearly irregular, as if the jurors have been selected by persons not authorized by law, it will be quashed. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3342.

3. In criminal cases, when an indictment is so defective that no judgment can be given upon it, should the defendant be convicted, the court, upon application, will in general quash it; as if it have no jurisdiction of the offence charged, or when the matter charged is not indictable. 1 Burr. 516, 548; Andr. 226. When the application to quash is made on the part of the defendant, the court generally refuses to quash the indictment when it appears some enormous crime has been committed. Com. Dig. Indictment, H; Wils. 325; 1 Salk. 372; 3 T. R. 621; 6 Mod. 42; 3 Burr. 1841; 5 Mod. 13; Bac. Abr. Indictment, K. When the application is made on the part of the prosecution, the indictment will be quashed whenever it is defective so that the defendant cannot be convicted, and the prosecution appears to be bona fide. If the prosecution be instituted by the attorney general, he may, in some states, enter a nolle prosequi, which has the same effect. 1 Dougl. 239, 240. The application should be made before plea pleaded; Leach, 11; 4 St. Tr. 232; 1 Hale, 35; Fost. 231; and before the defendant's recognizance has been forfeited. 1 Salk. 380. Vide Cassetur Breve.

QUASI. A Latin word in frequent use in the civil law signifying as if, almost. It marks the resemblance, and supposes a little difference between two objects. Dig. b. 11, t. 7, 1. 8, 1. Civilians use the expressions quasi-contractus, quasi-delictum, quasi-possessio quasi-traditio, &c.

QUASI-AFINITY. A term used in the civil law to designate the affinity which exists between two persons, one of whom has been betrothed to the kindred of the other, but who have never been married. For example, my brother is betrothed to Maria, and, afterwards, before marriage he dies, there then exists between Maria and me a quasi-affinity.

2. The history of England furnishes an example of this kind. Catherine of Arragon was betrothed to the brother of Henry VIII. Afterwards Henry married her and, under the pretence of this quasi affinity, he repudiated her, because the marriage was incestuous.

QUASI-CONTRACTUS. A term used in the civil law. A quasi-contract is the act of a person, permitted by law, by which he obligates himself towards another, or by which another binds himself to him, without any agreement between them.

2. By article 2272 of the Civil Code of Louisiana, which is translated from article 1371 of the Code Civil, quasi-contracts are defined to be "the lawful and purely voluntary acts of a man, from which there results any obligation whatever to a third person, and sometime a reciprocal obligation between the parties." In contracts, it is the consent of the contracting parties which produces the obligation; in quasi-contracts no consent is required, and the obligation arises from the law or natural equity, on the facts of the case. These acts are called quasi-contracts, because, without being contracts, they bind the parties as contracts do.

3. Quasi-contracts may be multiplied almost to infinity. They are, however, divided into five classes: such "relate to the voluntary and spontaneous management of the affairs of another, without authority; the administration of tutorship; the management of common property; the acquisition of an inheritance; and the payment of a sum of money or other thing by mistake, when nothing was due.

4. - 1. Negotiorum gestio. When a man undertakes of his own accord to manage the affairs of another, the person assuming the agency contracts the tacit engagement to continue it, an& complete it, until the owner shall be in a condition to attend to it himself. The obligation of such a person is, 1st. To act for the benefit of the absentee. 2d. He is commonly answerable for the slightest neglect. 3d. He is bound to render an account of his management. Equity obliges the proprietor, whose business has been well managed, 1st. To comply with the engagements contracted by the manager in his name. 2d. To indemnify the manager in all the engagements he has contracted. 3d. To reimburse him all useful and necessary expenses.

5. - 2. Tutorship or guardianship, is the second kind of quasi-contracts, there being no agreement between the tutor and minor.

6. - 3. When a person has the management of a common property owned by himself and others, not as partners, he is bound to account for the profits, and is entitled to be reimbursed for the expenses which he has sustained by virtue of the quasi-contract which is created by his act, called communio bonorum.

7. - 4. The fourth class is the aditio herreditatis, by which the heir is bound to pay the legatees, who cannot be said to have any contract with him or with the deceased.

8. - 5. Indebiti solutio, or the payment to one of what is not due to him, if made through any mistake in fact, or even in law, entitles him who made the payment to an action against the receiver for repayment, condictio indebiti. This action does not lie, 1. If the sum paid was due ex equitate, or by a natural obligation. 2. If he who made the payment; knew that nothing was due, for qui consulto dat quod non, debebat, proesumitur donare.

9. Each of these quasi-contracts has an affinity with some contract; thus the management of the affairs of another without authority, and tutorship, are compared to a mandate; the community of property, to a partnership; the acquisition of an inheritance, to a stipulation; and the payment of a thing which is not due, to a loan.

10. All persons, even infants and persons destitute of reason, who are consequently incapable of consent may be obliged by the quasi-contract, which results from the act of another, and may also oblige others in their favor; for it is not consent which forms these obligations; they are contracted by the act of another, without any act on our part. The use of reason is indeed required in the person whose act formsthe quasi-contract, but it is not re-quired in the person by whom or in whose favor the obligations which result from it are contracted. For instance, if a person undertakes the business of an infant or a lunatic; this is a quasi-contract, which obliges the infant or the lunatic to the person undertaking his affairs, for what he has beneficially expended, and reciprocally obliges the person to give an account of his administration or management.

11. There is no term in the common law which answers to that of quasi-contract; many quasi-contracts may doubtless be classed among implied contracts; there is, however, a difference between them, which an example will make manifest. In case money should be paid by mistake to a minor, it may be recovered from him by the civil law, because his consent is not necessary to a quasi-contract but by the common law, if it can be recovered, it must be upon an agreement to which the law presumes he has consented, and it is doubtful, upon principle, whether such recovery could be had.

See generally, Just. Inst. b. 3, t. 28 Dig. b. 3, tit. 5; Ayl. Pand. b. 4, tit. 31 1 Bro. Civil Law, 386; Ersk. Pr. Laws of Scotl. b. 3, tit. 3, s. 16; Pardessus, Dr. Com. n. 192, et seq.; Poth. Ob. n. 113, et seq.; Merlin, Rep. Riot Quasi-contract; Menestrier, Lecons Elem. du Droit Civil Romain, liv. 3, tit. 28; Civil Code of Louisiana, b. 3, tit. 5; Code Civil, liv. 3, tit. 4, c. 1.

QUASI CORPORATIONS. This term is applied to such bodies or municipal socie-ties, which, though not vested with the general powers of corporations, are yet recognized by statutes or immemorial usage, as persons or aggregate corporations, with precise duties which may be enforced, and privileges which may be maintained by suits at law. They may be considered qua corporations, with limited powers, coextensive with the duties imposed upon them by statute or usage; but restrained from a general use of the authority, which belongs to those metaphysical persons by the common law.

2. Among quasi corporations may be ranked towns, townships, parishes, hundreds, and other political divisions of counties, which are established with-out an express charter of incorporation; commissioners of a county, supervisors of highways, overseers of the poor, loan officers of a county, and the like, who are invested with corporate powers sub modo, and for a few specified purposes only. But not such a body as the general assembly of the Preshyterian church, which has not the capacity to sue and be sued. 4 Whart. 531. See 2 Kent Com. 224; Ang. on Corp. 16; 13 Mass. 192; 18 John. R. 422; 1 Cowen, R. 258, and the note; 2 Wend. R. 109; 7 Mass. R. 187; 2 Pick. R. 352; 9 Mass. Rep. 250; 1 Greenl. R. 363; 2 John. Ch. Rep. 325; 1 Cowen, 680; 4 Wharton, R. 531, 598.

QUASI DELICT, civil law. An act whereby a person, without malice, but by fault, negligence or imprudence not legally excusable, causes injury to another.

2. A quasi delict may be public or private; the neglect of the affairs of a community, when it is our duty to attend to them, may be a crime; the neglect of a private matter, under similar circumstances, may be the ground of a civil action. Bowy. Mod. C. L. c. 43, p. 265.

QUASI OFFENCES, torts, civil law. Those acts which, although not committed by the persons responsible for them, are by implication of law supposed to have been committed by their command, by other persons for whom they are answerable. They are also injuries which have been caused by one person to another, without any intention to hurt them.

2. Of the first class of quasi offences are the injuries occasioned by agents or servants in the exercise of their employments. A master is, therefore, liable to be sued for injuries occasioned by the neglect or unskilfulness of his servant while in the course of his employment, though the act was obviously tortious and against the master's consent as, for fraud, deceit, or other wrongful act. 1 Salk . 280; Cro. Jac. 473; 1 Str. 653; Roll. Abr. 95, 1. 15; 1 East, 106; 2 H. Bl. 442; 3 Wills. 313; 2 Bl. Rep. 845; 5 Binn. 54 0; sed vide, Com. Dig. tit. Action on the case for deceit, B. A master is liable for a servant's negligent driving of a carriage or navigating a ship; 1 East, 105; or for a libel inserted in a newspaper of which defendant was proprietor. 1 B. & P. 409. The master is also liable not only for the acts of those immediately employed about him, but even for the acts of a sub-agent, however remote, if committed in the course of his service; 1 Bos. & P. 404; 6 T. R. 411; and a corporate company are liable to be sued for the wrongful acts of their servants; 3 Camp. 403; when not, see 4 M. & S. 27.

3. But the wrongful or unlawful acts must be committed in the course of the servant's employmen, and while the servant is acting as such; therefore a person who hires a post chaise is not liable for the negligence of the driver, but the action must be against the driver or owner of the chaise and horses. 6 Esp. Cas. 35; 4 Barn. & A. 409 sed vide 1 B. & P. 409.

4. A master is not in general liable for the criminal acts of his servant wilfully committed by him. 2 Str. 885. Neither is he liable his servant wilfully commit an injury to another as if a servant wilfully drive his master's carriage against another's, or ride or beat a distress damage feasant. 1 East. 106; Rep. T. Hard. 87; 3 Wils. 217; 1 Salk. 289; 2 Roll. Abr. 553; 4 B. & A. 590. In some cases, however, where it is the duty of the master to see that the servant acts correctly, he may be liable criminally for what the servant has done; as where a baker's servant introduced noxious materials in his bread. 3 M. & S. 11; Ld. Raymond, 264; 4 Camp. 12. And on principles of public policy, a sheriff is liable civilly for the trespass, extortion, or other wilful misconduct of his bailiff. 2 T. Rep. 154; 3 Wils. 317; 8 T. R. 431.

5. In Louisiana, the father, or after his decease, the mother is responsible for the damages occasioned by their minor or unemancipated children, residing with them, or placed by them under the care of other persons, reserving to them recourse against those persons. Code art. 2297. The curators of insane persons are answerable for the damage occasioned by those under their care. Id. 2298. Masters and employers are answerable for the damage occasioned by their servants and overseers, in the exercise of the functions in which they are employed; teachers and artisans, for the damage caused by their scholars and apprentices, while under their superintendence. In the above cases responsibility attaches, when the masters or employers, teachers and artisans, might have prevented the act which caused the damage, and have not done it. Id. 299. The owner of an animal is answerable for the damage he has caused; but if the animal has been lost or strayed more than a day, he may discharge himself from this responsibility, by abandoning him to the person who his sustained the injury; except where the master has turned loose a dangerous or noxious animal; for then he must pay all the harm done without being allowed to make the abandonment. Id. 2301.

QUASI PARTNERS. Partners of lands, goods, or chattels, who are not actual partners, are sometimes so called. Poth. De Societe, App. n. 184. Vide Part owners.

QUASI POSTHUMOUS CHILD, civil law. One who, born during the life of his grand father, or other male ascendant, was not his heir at the time he made his testament, but who by the death of his father became his heir in his lifetime. Inst. 2, 13, 2; Dig. 28, 3, 13.

QUASI PURCHASE. This term is used in the civil law to denote that a thing is to be considered as purchased from the presumed consent of the owner of the thing; as, if a man should consume a cheese, which is in his possession and belonging to another, with an intent to pay the price of it to the owner, the consent of the latter will be presumed, as the cheese would have been spoiled by keeping it longer. Wolff, Dr. de la Nat. 691.

QUASI TRADITION, civil law. A term used to designate that a person is in the use of the property of another, which the latter suffers and does not oppose. Lec. Elein. 396. It alsosignifies the act by which the right of property is ceded in a thing to a person who is in possession of it; as, if I loan a boat to Paul, and deliver it to him, and afterwards I sell him the boat, it is not requisite that he should deliver the boat to me, to be again delivered to him there is a quasi tradition or delivery.

QUATUORVIRI. Among the Romans these were magistrates who had the care and inspection of roads. Dig. 1, 2, 3, 30.

QUAY, estates. A wharf at which to load or land goods, sometimes spelled key.

2. In its enlarged sense the word quay, means the whole space between the first row of houses of a city, and the sea or river 5 L. R. 152, 215. So much of the quay as is requisite for the public use of loading and unloading vessels, is public property, and cannot be appropriated to private use, but the rest may be, private property. Id. 201.

QUE EST MESME. Which is the same. Vide Quce est eadem.

QUE ESTATE. These words literally translated signify quem statum, or which estate. At common law, it is a plea by which a man prescribes in himself and those whose estate he holds. 2 Bl. Com. 270; 18 Vin. Ab. 133-140; 2 Tho. Co. Litt. 203; Co. Litt. 121 a; Hardress, 459 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 499.

QUEAN. A worthless woman a strumpet. The meaning of this word, which is now seldom used, is said not to be well ascertained. 2 Roll. Ab. 296 Bac. Ab. Stander, U 3.

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