New York Lawyer WS
New York Layer, law dictionary, legal dictionary, dictionary online, word search, lawyer search, law and order, attorney, law school    

QUEEN. There are several kinds of queens in some countries. 1. Queen regnant, is a woman who possesses in her own right the executive power of the country.

2. Queen consort, is the wife of a king.

3. Queen dowager is the widow of a king. In the United States there is no one with this title.

QUERELA. An action preferred in any court of justice, in which the plaintiff was called querens or complainant, and his brief, complaint, or declaration, was called querela. Jacob's Diet. h. t.

QUESTION, punishment, crm. law. A means sometimes employed, in some countries, by means of torture, to compel supposed great criminals to disclose their accomplices, or to acknowledge their crimes.

2. This torture is called question, because, as the unfortunate person accused is made to suffer pain, he is asked questions as to his supposed crime or accomplices. The same as torture. This is unknown in the United States. See Poth. Procedure Criminelle, sect. 5, art. 2, 3.

QUESTION, evidence. An interrogation put to a witness, requesting him to declare the truth of certain facts as far as he knows them.

2. Questions are either general or leading. By a general question is meant such an one as requires the witness to state all be knows without any suggestion being made to him, as who gave the blow?

3. A leading question is one which leads the mind of the witness to the answer, or suggests it to him, as did A B give the blow?

4. The Romans called a question by which the fact or supposed fact which the interrogator expected, or wished to find asserted, in and by the answer made to the proposed respondent, a suggestive interrogation, as, is not your name A B? Vide Leading Question.

QUESTION, practice. A point on which the parties are not agreed, and which is submitted to the decision of a judge and jury.

2. When the doubt or difference arises as to what the law is on a certain state of facts, this is said to be a legal question, and when the party demurs, this is to be decided by the court; when it arises as to the truth or falsehood of facts, this is a question of fact, and is to be decided by the jury.

QUESTOR or QUAESTOR, civil law. A name which was given to two distinct classes of Roman officers. One of which was called quaestores classici, and the other quaestores parricidii,

2. The quaestores classici were officers entrusted with the care of the public money. Their duties consisted in making the necessary payments from the aerarium, and receiving the public revenues. Of both, they had to keep correct accounts in their tabulae publicae. Demands which any one might have on the aerarium, and outstanding debts were likewise registered by them. Fines to be paid to the public treasury were registered and exacted by them. They were likewise to provide proper accomodations for foreign ambassadors and such persons as were connected with the republic by ties of public hospitality. Lastly, they were charged with the care of the burials and monuments of distin-guished men, the expenses for which had been decreed by the senate to be paid, by the treasury. Their number at first was confined to two, but this was afterwards increased as the empire became, extended. There were questors of cities, provinces, and questors of the army, the latter were in fact pay-masters.

3. The questores parricidii were public accusers, two in number, who conducted the accusation of persons guilty of murder or any other capital offence, and carried the sentence into execution. They ceased to be appointed at an early period, Smith's Dic. Gr. and Rom. Antiq. h. v.

QUI TAM, remedies. Who as well. When a statute imposes a penalty, for the doing or not doing an act, and gives that penalty in part to whosoever will sue for the same, and the other part to the commonwealth, or some charitable, literary, or other institution, and makes it recoverable by action, such actions are called qui tam actions, the plaintiff describing himself as suing as well for the commonwealth, for example, as for himself. Espin. on Pen. Act. 5, 6; 1 Vin. Ab. 197; 1 Salk. 129 n.; Bac. Ab. h. t.

QUIA, pleadings. Because. This word is considered a term of affirmation. It is sufficiently direct and positive for introducing a material averment. 1 Saund. 117, n. 4; Com. Dig, Pleader, c. 77.

QUIA EMPTORES. A name sometimes given to the English Statute of Westminster, 3, 13 Edw. I., c. 1, from its initial words. 2 Bl. Com. 91.

QUIA TIMET, remedies. Because he fears. According to Lord Coke, "there be six writs of law that may be maintained quia timet, before any molestation, distress, or impleading; as. 1. A man may have his writ or mesne, before he be distrained. 2. A warrantia chartae, before he be impleaded. 3. A monstra-verunt, before any distress or vexation. 4. An audita querela, before any execution sued. 5. A curia claudenda, before any default of inclosure. 6. A ne injuste vexes, before any distress or molestation. And those are called brevia anticipantia, writs of prevention." Co. Litt. 100 and see 7 Bro. P. C. 12 5.

2. These writs are generally obsolete. In chancery, when it is contemplated to prevent an expected injury, a bill quia timet (q. v.) is filed. Vide 1 Fonb. 41; 18 Vin Ab. 141; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 3801, et seq. Bill quia timet.

QUIBBLE. A slight difficulty raised without necessity or propriety; a cavil.

2. No justly eminent member of the bar will resort to a quibble in his argument. It is contrary to his oath, which is to be true to the court as well as to the client; and bad policy because by resorting to it, he will lose his character as a man of probity.

QUICK WITH CHILD, or QUICKENING, med. jurisp. The motion of the foetus, when felt by the mother, is called quickening, and the mother is then said to be quick with child. 1 Beck's Med. Jurisp. 172; 1 Russ. on Cr. 553.

2. This happens at different periods of pregnancy in different women, and in different circumstances, but most usually about the fifteenth or sixteenth week after conception. 3 Camp. Rep. 97.

3. It is at this time that in law, life (q. v.) is said to commence. By statute, a distinction is made between a woman quick with child, and one who, though pregnant, is not so, when she is said to be privement enceinte. (q. v.) 1 Bl. Com. 129.

4. Procuring the abortion (q. v.) of a woman quick with child, is a misdemeanor when a woman is capitally convicted, if she be enceinte, it is said by Lord Hale, 2 P. C. 413, that unless they be quick with child, it is no cause for staying execution, but that if she be enceinte, and quick with child, she may allege that fact in retardationem executionis. The humanity of the law of the present day would scarcely sanction the execution of a woman whose pregnancy was undisputed, although she might not be quick with child; for physiologists, perhaps not without reason, think the child is a living being from the moment of conception. 1 Beck, Med. Jur. 291; Guy, Med. Jur. 86, 87.

QUID PRO QUO. This phrase signifies verbatim, what for what. It is applied to the consideration of a contract. See Co. Litt. 47, b; 7 Mann. & Gr. 998.

QUIDAM, French law. Some, one; somebody. This Latin word is used to express an unknown person, or one who cannot be named.

2. A quidam is usually described by the features of his face, the color of his hair, his height, his clothing, and the like in any process which may be issued against him. Merl. Repert. h. t.; Encyclopedie, h. t.

3. A warrant directing the officer to arrest the "associates" of persons named, without naming them, is void. 3 Munf. 458.

QUIET ENJOYMENT. In leases there are frequently covenants by which the lessor agrees that the lessee shall peaceably enjoy the premises leased; this is called a covenant for quiet enjoyment. This covenant goes to the possession and not to the title. 3 John. 471; 5 John. 120; 2 Dev. R. 388; 3 Dev. R. 200. A covenant for quiet enjoyment does not extend as far as a covenant of warranty. 1 Aik. 233.

2. The covenant for quiet enjoyment is broken only by an entry, or lawful expulsion from, or some actual disturbance in, the possession. 3 John. 471; 15 John. 483; 8 John. 198; 7 Wend. 281; 2 Hill, 105; 2 App. R. 251; 9 Metc. 63; 4 Whart. 86; 4 Cowen, 340. But the tortious entry of the covenantor, without title, is a breach of the covenant for quiet enjoyment. 7 John. 376.

QUIETUS, Eng. law. A discharge; an acquittance.

2. It is an instrument by the clerk of the pipe, and auditors in the exchequer, as proof of their acquittance or discharge to accountants. Cow. Int. h. t.

QUlNTAL. A weight of one hundred pounds

QUlNTO EXACTUS, Eng. law. The fifth call or last requisition of a defendant sued to outlawry.

QUIT CLAIM, conveyancing. By the laws of Connecticut, it is the common practice there for the owner of land to execute a quit claim deed to a purchaser who has neither possession nor pretence of claim, and as by the laws of that state the delivery of the deed amounts to the delivery of possession, this operates as a conveyance without warranty. It is, however, essential that the land should not, at the time of the conveyance, be in the possession of a stranger, holding adversely to the title of the grantor. l Swift's Dig. 133; 2 N. H. R. 402; 1 Cowen, 613; and vide Release.

QUIT CLAIM, contracts. A release or acquittal of a man from all claims which the releasor has against him.

QUIT RENT. A rent paid by the tenant of the freehold, by which he goes quit and free; that is, discharged from any other rent. 2 Bl. Com. 42.

2. In England, quit rents were rents reserved to the king or a proprietor, on an absolute grant of waste land, for which a price in gross was at first paid, and a mere nominal rent reserved as a feudal acknowledgment of tenure. Inasmuch as no rent of this description can exist in the United States, when a quit rent is spoken of, some other interest must be intended. 5 Call. R. 364. A perpetual rent reserved on a conveyance in fee simple, is sometimes known by the name of quit rent in Massachusetts. 1 Hill. Ab. 150. See Ground Rent; Rent.

QUO ANIMO. The intent; the mind with which a thing has been done; as, the quo animo with which the words were spoken may be shown by the proof of conversations of the defendant relating to the original defamation. 19 Wend. 296.

JURE, WRIT OF, Engl. law. The name of a writ commanding the defendant to show by what right he demands common of pasture in the land of the complainant, who claims to have a fee in the same. F. N. B. 299.

QUO MlNUS. The name of a writ. In England, when the king's debtor is sued in the court of the exchequer, he may sue out a writ of quo minus, in which he suggests that he is the king's debtor, and that the defendant has done him the injury or damage complained of, quo minus sufficiens existit, by which he is less able to pay the king's debt. This was originally requisite in order to give jurisdiction to the court of exchequer, but now this suggestion is a mere form. 3 Bl. Com. 46.

QUO WARRANTO, remedies. By what authority or warrant. The name of a writ issued in the name of a government against any person or corporation that usurps any franchise or office, commanding the sheriff of the county to summon the defendant to be and appear before the court whence the writ issued, at a time and place therein named, to show "quo warranto" he claims the franchise or office mentioned in the writ. Old Nat. Br. 149; . 5 Wheat. 291; 15 Mass. 125; 5 Ham. 358; 1 Miss. 115.

2. This writ has become obsolete, having given way to informations in the nature of a quo warranto at the common law; Ang. on Corp. 469; it is authorized in Pennsylvania by legislative sanction. Act 14 June, 1836. Vide 1 Vern. 156; Yelv. 190; 7 Com. Dig. 189; 17 Vin. Ab. 177.

3. An information in the nature of a quo warranto, although a criminal proceeding in form, in substance, is a civil one. 1 Serg. & Rawle, 382.

QUOAD HOC. As to this; with respect to this. A term frequently used to signify, as to the thing named, the law is so and so.

QUOD COMPUTET. The name of an interlocutory judgment in an action of account render: also the name of a decree in the case of creditors' bills against executors or administrators. Such a decree directs the master to take the accounts between the deceased and all his creditors; to cause the creditors, upon due and public notice to come before him to prove their debts, at a certain place, and within a limited period; and also directs the master to take an account of all personal estate of the deceased in the hands of the executor or administrator. Story, Eq. Jur. SS 548. See Judgment quod computet.

QUOD CUM, pleading; It is a general rule in pleading, regulating alike every form of action, that the plaintiff shall state his complaint in positive and direct terms, and not by way of recital. "For that," is a positive allegation; "for that whereas," in Latin "quod cum," is a recital

2. Matter of inducement may with propriety be stated with a quod cum, by way of recital; being but introductory to the breach of the promise, and the supposed fraud or deceit in the defendant's non-performance of it. Therefore, where the plaintiff declared that whereas there was a communication and agreement concerning a horse race, and whereas, in consideration that the plaintiff promised to perform his part of the agreement, the defendant promised to perform his part thereof; and then alleged the performance in the usual way; it was held that the inducement and promise were alleged certainly enough, and that the word "whereas" was as direct an affirmation as the word "although," which undoubtedly makes a good averment; and it was observed that there were two precedents in the new book of entries, and seven in the old, where a quod cum was used in the very clause of the promise. Ernly v. Doddington, Hard. 1. go, where the plaintiff declared on a bill of exchange against the drawer, and on demurrer to the declaration, it was objected that it was with a quod cum, which was argumentative, and implied no direct averment; the objection was over-ruled, because assumpsit is an action on the case, although it might have been otherwise in trespass vi et armis. March v. Southwell, 2 Show. 180. The reason of this distinction is, that in assumpsit or other action on the case, the statement of the gravamen, or grievance, always follows some previous matter, which is introduced by the quod cum, and is dependent or consequent upon it; and the quod cum only refers to that introductory matter, which leads on to the subsequent statement, which statement is positively and directly alleged. For example, the breach in an action of assumpsit is always preceded by the allegation of the consideration or promise, or some inducement thereto, which leads onto the breach of it, which is stated positively and directly; and the previous allegations only, which introduce it, are stated with a quod cum, by way of recital.

3. But in trespass vi et armis, the act of trespass complained of is usually stated without any introductory matter having reference to it, or to which a quod cum can be referred; so that if a quod cum be used, there is no positive or direct allegation of that act. Sherland v. Heat 214. After verdict the quod cum may be considered as surplusage, the defect being cured by the verdict. Horton v. Mink, 1 Browne's R. 68; Com. Dig. Pleader, C 86.

QUOD EI DEFORCEAT, Engl. law. The name of a writ given by Stat. Westmin. 2, 13 Edw. I. c. 4, to the owners of a particular estate, as for life, in dower, by the curtesy, or in fee tail, who are barred of the right of possession by a recovery had against them through their default or non-appearance in a possessory action; by which the right was restored to him, who had been thus unwarily deforced by his own default. 3 Bl. Com. 193.

QUOD PERMITTAT, Engl. law. That he permit. The name of a writ which lies for the heir of him who is disseised of his common of pasture, against the heir of the disseisor, he being dead. Termes de la Ley.

QUOD PERMITTAT PROSTERNERE, Engl. law. That he give leave to demolish. The name of a writ which commands the defendant to permit the plaintiff to abate the nuisance of which complaint is made, or otherwise to appear in court and to show cause why he will not. On proof of the facts the plaintiff is entitled to have judgment to abate the nuisance and to recover damages. This proceeding, on account of its tediousness and expense, has given way to a special action on the case.

QUOD PROSTRAVIT. The name of a judgment upon an indictment for a nuisance, that the defendant abate such nuisance.

QUOD RECUPERET. That he recover. The form of a judgment that the plaintiff do recover. See Judgment quod recuperet.

QUORUM. Used substantively, quorum signifies the number of persons belonging to a legislative assembly, a corporation, society, or other body, required to transact business; there is a difference between an act done by a definite number of persons, and one performed by an indefinite number: in the first case a majority is required to constitute a quorum, unless the law expressly directs that another number may make one; in the latter case any number who may be present may act, the majority of those present having, as in other cases, the right to act. 7 Cowen, 402; 9 B. & C. 648; Ang. on Corp. 28.1.

2. Sometimes the law requires a greater number than a bare majority to form a quorum, in such case no quorum is present until such a number convene.

3. When an authority is confided to several persons for a private purpose, all must join in the act, unless otherwise authorized. 6 John. R. 38. Vide Authority, Majority; Plurality.

QUOT, Scotch law. The twentieth part of the movables, computed without computation of debts, was so called.

2. Formerly the bishop was entitled, in all confirmations, to the quot of the testament. Ersk. Prin. B. 3, t. 9, n. 11.

QUOTA. That part which each one is to bear of some expense; as, his quota of this debt; that is, his proportion of such debt.

QUOTATION, practice. The allegation of some authority or case, or passage of some law, in support of a position which it is desired to establish.

2. Quotations when properly made, assist the reader, but when misplaced, they are inconvenient. As to the manner of quoting or citing authorities, see Abbreviations; Citations.

QUOTATION, rights. The transcript of a part of a book or writing from a book or paper into another.

2. If the quotation is fair, aud not so extensive as to extract the whole value or the most valuable part of an author, it will not be a violation of the copyright. It is mostly difficult to define what is a fair quotation. When the quotation is unfair, an injunction will lie to restrain the publication. See 17 Ves. 424; 1 Bell's Com. 121, 5th ed.

3. "That part of a work of one author found in another," observed Lord Ellenborough, "is not of itself piracy, or sufficient to support an action; a man may adopt part of the work of another; he may so make use ofanother's labors for the promotion of science, and the benefit of the public." 5 Esp. N. P. C. 170; 1 Campb. 94. See Curt. on Copyr. 242; 3 Myl. & Cr. 737, 738; 17 Ves. 422; 1 Campb. 94; 2 Story, R. 100; 2 Beav. 6, 7; Abridgment; Copyright.

QUOUSQUE. A Latin adverb, which signifies how long, how far, until.

2. In old conveyances it is used as a word of limitation. 10 Co. 41.

3. In practice it is the name of an execution which is to have force until the defendant shall do a certain thing. Of this kind is the capias ad satisfaciendum, by virtue of which the body of the defendant is taken into execution, and he is imprisoned until be shall satisfy the execution. 3 Bouv. Inst. n. 3371.

Copyright © 2004 New-York-Lawyer .WS