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RECEIPT, contracts. A receipt is an acknowledgment in writing that the party giving the same has received from the person therein named, the money or other thing therein specified.

2. Although expressed to be in full of all demands, it is only prima facie evidence of what it purports to be and upon satisfactory proof being made that it was obtained by fraud, or given either under a mistake of facts or an ignorance of law, it may be inquired into and corrected in a court of law as well as in equity. 1 Pet. C. C. R. 182; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 355; S. P. 7 Serg. & Rawle, 309; 3 Serg. & Rawle, 564, 589; 12 Serg. & Rawle, 131; 1 Sid. 44; 1 Lev. 43; 1 Saund. 285; 2 Lutw. 1173; Co. Lit. 373; 2 Stark. C. 382; 1 W., C. C. R. 328; 2 Mason's R. 541; 11 Mass. 27; 1 Johns. Cas. 145; 9 John. R. 310; 8 Johns. R. 389; 5 Johns. R. 68; 4 Har. & McH. 219; 3 Har. & McH. 433; 2 Johns. R. 378; 2 Johns. R., 319. A receipt in full, given with a full knowledge of all the circumstances and in the absence of fraud, seems to be conclusive. 1 Esp. C. 172; Benson v. Bennet, 1 Camp. 394, n.

3. A receipt sometimes contains an acknowledgment of having received a thing, and also an agreement to do another. It is only prima facie evidence as far as the receipt goes, but it cannot be contradicted by parol evidence in any part by which the party engages to perform a contract. A bill of lading, for example, partakes of both these characters; it may be contradicted or explained as to the facts stated in the recital, as that the goods were in good order and well conditioned; but, in other respects, it cannot be contradicted in any other manner than a common written contract. 7 Mass. R. 297; 1 Bailey, R. 174; 4 Ohio, R. 334; 3 Hawks, R. 580; 1 Phil. & Am. on Ev. 388; Greenl. Ev. 305. Vide, generally, 1 B . & C. 704 S. C. 8 E. C. L. R. 193; 2 Taunt. R. 141; 2 T. R. 366; 5 B. & A. 607; 7 E. C. L. R. 206; 3 B. & C. 421; 1 East, R. 460.

4. If a man by his receipt acknowledges that he has received money from an agent on account of his principal, and thereby accredits the agent with the principal to that amount, such receipt is, it seems, conclusive as to the payment by the agent. For example, the usual acknowledgment in a policy of insurance of the receipt of premium from the assured, is conclusive of the fact as between the underwriter and the assured; Dalzell v. Mair, 1 Camp. 532; although such receipt would not be so between the underwriter and the broker. And if an agent empowered to contract for sale, sell and convey land, enter into articles of agreement by which it is stipulated that the vendee shall clear, make improvements, pay the purchase money by installments, &c., and on the completion of the covenants to be performed by him, receive from the vendor or his legal representatives, a good and sufficient warranty deed in fee for the premises, the receipt of the agent for Such parts of the purchase-money as may be paid before the execution of the deed, is binding on the principal. 6 Serg. & Rawle, 146. See 11 Johns. R. 70.

5. A receipt on the back of a bill of exchange is prima facie evidence of payment by the acceptor. Peake's C. 25. The giving of a receipt does not exclude parol evidence of payment. 4 Esp. N. P. C. 214.

6. In Pennsylvania it has been holden that a receipt, not under seal, to one of several joint debtors, for his proportion of the debt, discharges the rest. 1 Rawle, 391. But in New York a contrary rule has been adopted. 7 John. 207. See Coxe, 81; 1 Root, 72. See Evidence.

RECEIPTOR. In Massachusetts this name is given to the person who, on a trustee process being issued and goods attached, becomes surety to the sheriff to have them forthcoming on demand, or in time to respond the judgment, when the execution shall be issued. Upon which the goods are bailed to him. Story, Bailm. 124, and see Attachment; Remedies.

RECEPTUS, civil law. The name sometimes given to an arbitrator, because he had been received or chosen to settle the differences between the parties. Dig. 4, 8 Code, 2, 56.

TO RECEIVE. Voluntarily to take from another what is offered.

2. A landlord, for example, could not be said to receive the key from his tenant, when the latter left it at his house without his knowledge, unless by his acts afterwards, he should be presumed to have given his consent.

RECEIVER, chancery practice. A person appointed by a court possessing chan- cery jurisdiction to receive the rents and profits of land, or the profits or produce of other property in dispute.

2. The power of appointing a receiver is a discretionary power exercised by the court. the appointment is provisional, for the more speedy getting in of the estate in dispute, and scouring it for the benefit of such person as may be entitled to it, and does not affect the right. 3 Atk. 564.

3. It is not within the compass of this work to state in what cases a receiver will be appointed; on this subject, see 2 Madd. Ch. 233.

4. The receiver is an officer of the court, and as such, responsible for good faith and reasonable diligence. When the property is lost or injured by any negligence or dishonest execution of the trust, he is liable in damages; but he is not, as of course, responsible because there has been an embezzlement or theft. He is bound to such ordinary diligence, as belongs to a prudent and honest discharge of his duties, and such as is required of all persons who receive compensation for their services. Story, Bailm. 620, 621; and the cases there cited. Vide, generally, 2 Mudd. Ch. 232; Newl. Ch. Pr. 88; 8 Com. Dig. 890; 18 Vin. Ab. 160; 1 Supp. to Ves. jr. 455; 2 Id. 57, 58, 74, 75, 442, 455; Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

RECEIVER OF STOLEN GOODS, crim. law. By statutory provision the receiver of stolen goods knowing them to have been stolen may be punished as the principal in perhaps all the United States.

2. To make this offence complete, the goods received must have been stolen, and the receiver must know that fact.

3. It is almost always difficult to prove guilty knowledge; and that must in general be collected from circumstances. If such circumstances are proved which to a person of common understanding and prudence and situated as the prisoner was, must have satisfied him that they were stolen, this is sufficient. For example, the receipt of watches, jewelry, large quantities of money, bundles of clothes of various kinds, or personal property of any sort, to a considerable value, from boys or persons destitute of property, and with-out any lawful means of acquiring them and specially if bought at untimely hours, the mind can arrive at no other conclusion than that they were stolen. This is further confirmed if they have been bought at an undervalue, concealed, the marks defaced, and falsehood resorted to in accounting for the possession of them. Alison's Cr. Law, 330; 2 Russ. Cr. 253; 2 Chit. Cr. Law , 951; Roscoe, Cr. Ev. h. t.; 1 Wheel. C. C. 202.

4. At common law receiving, stolen goods, knowing them to have been stolen, is a misdemeanor. 2 Russ. Cr. 253.

RECESSION. A re-grant: the act of returning the title of a country to a go- vernment which formerly held it, by one which has it at the time; as the recession of Louisiana, which took place by the treaty between France and Spain, of October 1, 1800. See 2 White's Coll. 516.

RECIDIVE, French law. The state of an individual who commits a crime or misdemeanor, after having once been condemned for a crime or misdemeanor; a relapse.

2. Many states provide, that for a second offence, the punishment shall be increased in those cases the indictment should set forth the crime or mis-dmeanor as a second offence.

3. The second offence must have been committed after tho conviction for the first; a defendant could not be convicted of a second offence, as such, until after he had suffered a punishment for the first. Dall. Diet. h. t.

RECIPROCAL CONTRACT, civil law. One in which the parties enter into mutual engagements.

2. They are divided into perfect and imperfect. When they are perfectly reciprocal, the obligation of each of the parties is equally a principal part of the contract, such as sale, partnership, &c. Contracts imperfectly reciprocal are those in which the obligation of one of the parties only is a principal obligation of the contract; as, mandate, deposit, loan for use, and the like. In all reciprocal contracts the consent of the parties must be ex- pressed. Poth. Obl. n. 9; Civil Code of Louis. art. 1758, 1759.

RECIPROCITY. Mutuality; state, quality or character of that which is reciprocal.

2. The states of the Union are bound to many acts of reciprocity. The constitution requires that they shall deliver to each other fugitives from justice; that the records of one state, properly authenticated, shall have full credit in the other states; that the citizens of one state shall be citizens of any state into which they may remove. In some of the states, as in Pennsylvania, the rule with regard to the effect of a discharge under the insolvent laws of another state, are reciprocated; the discharges of those courts which respect the discharges of the courts of Pennsylvania, are respected in that state.

RECITAL, contracts, pleading. The repetition of some former writing, or the statement of something which has been done. Touchst. 76.

2. Recitals are used to explain those matters of fact which are necessary to make the transaction intelligible. 2 Bl. Com. 298. It is said that when a deed of defeasance recites the deed which it is meant to defeat, it must recite it truly. Cruise, Dig. tit. 32, c 7, s. 28. In other cases it need not be so particular. 3 Penna. Rep. 324; 3 Chan. Cas. 101; Co. Litt. 352 b; Com. Dig. Fait, E 1.

3. A party who executes a deed reciting a particular fact is estopped from denying such fact; as, when it was recited in the condition of a bond that the obligor had received divers sums of money for the obligee which he had not brought to account, and acknowledged that a balance was due to the obligee, it was holden that the obligor was estopped to say that he had not received any money for the use of the obligee. Willes, 9, 25; Rolle's Ab. 872, 3.

4. In pleading, when public statutes are recited, a small variance will not be fatal, where by the recital the party is not "tied up to the statute;" that is, if the conclusion be contra formam statuti praediti. Sav. 42; 1 Chit. Crim. Law, 276 Esp. on Penal Stat. 106. Private statutes must be recited in pleading, and proved by an exemplified copy, unless the opposite party, by his pleading admit them.

5. By the plea of nul tiel record, the party relying on a private statute is put to prove it as recited, and a variance will be fatal. See 4 Co. 76; March, Rep. 117, pl. 193; 3 Harr. & McHen. 388. Vide. generally, 12 Vin. Ab. 129; 13 Vin. Ab. 417; 18 Vin. Ab. 162; 8 Com. Dig. 584; Com. Dig. Testemoigne-Evid. B 5; 4 Binn. R. 231; 1 Dall. R. 67; 3 Binn. R. 175; 3 Yeates, R. 287; 4 Yeates, R. 362, 577; 9 Cowen, R. 86; 4 Mason, R. 268; Yelv. R. 127 a, note 1; Cruise, Dig. tit. 32, c. 20, s. 23; 5 Johns. Ch. Rep. 23; 7 Halst. R. 22; 2 Bailey's R. 101; 6 Harr. & Johns. 336; 9 Cowen's R. 271; 1 Dana's R. 327; 15 Pick. R. 68; 5 N. H. Rep. 467; 12 Pick. R, 157; Toullier in his Droit Civil Francais, liv. 3, t. 3, c. 6, n. 157 et seq. has examined this subject with his usual ability. 2 Hill. Ab. c. 29, s. 30; 2 Bail. R. 430; 2 B. & A. 625; 2 Y. & J. 407; 5 Harr. & John. 164; Cov. on Conv. Ev. 298, 315; Hurl. on Bonds, 33; 6 Watts & Serg. 469.

6. Formerly, in equity, the decree contained recitals of the pleadings in the cause, which became a great grievance. Some of the English chancellors endeavored to restrain this prolixity. By the rules of practice for the courts in equity of the United States it is provided, that in drawing up decrees and orders, neither the bill, nor the answer, nor other pleading nor any part thereof, nor the report of any master, nor any other prior proceedings, shall be stated or recited in the decree or order. Rule 86; 4 Bouv. Inst. n. 4443.

RECLAIM. To demand again, to insist upon a right; as, when a defendant for a consideration received from the plaintiff, has covenanted to do an act, and fails to do it, the plaintiff may bring covenant for the breach, or assumpsit to reclaim the consideration. 1 Caines, 47.

RECOGNITION, contracts. An acknowledgment that something which has been done by one man in the name of another, was done by authority of the latter.

2. A recognition by the principal of the agency of another in the particular instance, or in similar instances, is evidence of the authority of the agent, so that the recognition may be either express or implied. As an instance of an implied recognition may be mentioned the case of one who subscribes policies in the name of another and, upon a loss happening, the latter pays the amount. 1 Camp. R. 43, n. a; 1 Esp. Cas. 61; 4 Camp. R. 88.

RECOGNITORS, Eng. law. The name by which the jurors impanneled on an assize are known. Barnet v. Ihrie, 17 S. & R. 174.

RECOGNIZANCE, contracts. An obligation of record entered into before a court or officer duly authorized for that purpose, with a condition to do some act required by law, which is therein specified. 2 Bl. Com. 341; Bro. Ab. h. t.; Dick. Just. h. t.; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 90.

2. Recognizances relate either to criminal or civil matters. 1. Recognizances in criminal cases, are either that the party shall appear before the proper court to answer to such charges as are or shall be made against him, that he shall keep the peace or be of good behaviour. Witnesses are also required to be bound in a recognizance to testify.

3. - 2. In civil cases, recognizances are entered into by bail, conditioned that they will pay the debt, interest and costs recovered by the plaintiff under certain contingencies. There are also cases where recognizances are entered into under the authority and requirements of statutes.

4. As to the form. The party need not sign it; the court, judge or magis-trate having authority to take the same, makes a short memorandum on the record, which is sufficient. 2 Binn. R. 481; 1 Chit. Cr. Law, 90; 2 Wash. C. C. R. 422; 9 Mass. 520; 1 Dana, 523; 1 Tyler, 291; 4 Verm. 488; 1 Stew. & Port. 465; 7 Vern. 529; 2 A. R. Marsh. 131; 5 S. & R. 147; Vide generally, Com. Dig. Forcible Entry, D 27; Id. Obligation, K; Whart. Dig. h. t. Vin. Ab. h. t.; Rolle's Ab. h. t.; 2 Wash. C. C. Rep. 422; Id. 29; 2 Yeates, R. 437; 1 Binn. R. 98 , note 1 Serg. & Rawle, 328 3 Yeates, R. 93; Burn. Just. h. t. Vin. Ab. h. t.; 2 Sell. Pract. 45.

RECOGNIZEE. He for whose use a recognizance has been taken.

RECOGNISOR, contracts. He who enters into a recognizance.

RECOLEMENT, French law. The reading and reexamination by a witness of a de-position, and his persistance in the saine, or his making such alteration, as his better recollection may enable him to do, after having read his deposition. Without such reexamination the deposition is void. Poth. Proced. Cr. s. 4, art. 4.

RECOMMENDATION. The giving to a person a favorable character of another.

2. When the party giving the character has acted in good faith, he is not responsible for the injury which a third person, to whom such recommendation was given, may have, sustained in consequence of it, although he was mistaken.

3. But when the recommendation is knowingly untrue, and an injury is sustained, the party recommending is civilly responsible for damages; 3 T. R. 51; 7 Cranch, 69; 14 Wend. 126; 7 Wend. 1; 6 Penn. St. R. 310 whether it was done merely for the purpose of benefitting the party recommended, or the party who gives the recommendation.

4. And in case the party recomended was a debtor to the one recommending, and it was agreed prior to the transaction, that the former should, out of the property to be obtained by the recommendation, be paid; or in case of any other species of collusion, to cheat the person to whom the credit is given, they may both be criminally prosecuted for the conspiracy. Vide Character, and Fell on Guar. ch. 8; 6 Johns. R. 181; 1 Davis Ca. Er. 22; 13 Johns. R. 224; 5 N. S. 443.

RECOMPENSATION, Scolch law. When a party sues for a debt, and the defendant pleads compensation, or set-off, the plaintiff may allege a compensation on his part, and this is called a recompensation. Bell's Dict. h. t.

RECOMPENSE. A reward for services; remuneration for goods or other property.

2. In maritime law there is a distinction between recompense and restitution. (q. v.) When goods have been lost by jettison, if at any subsequent period of the voyage the remainder of the cargo be lost, the owner of the goods lost by jettison cannot claim restitution from the owners of the other goods; but in the case of expenses incurred with a view to the general benefit, it is clear that they ought to be made good to the party, whether he be an agent employed by the master in a foreign port or the ship owner himself.

RECOMPENSE OP RECOVERY IN VALUE. This phrase, is applied to the matter recovered in a common recovery, after the vouchee has disappeared, and judgment is given for the demandant. 2 Bouv. Inst. n. 2093.

RECONCILIATION, contracts. The act of bringing persons to agree together, who before, had had some difference.

2. A renewal of cohabitation between hushand and wife is proof of reconcil-iation, and such reconciliation destroys the effect of a deed of separation. 4 Eccl. R. 238.

RECONDUCTION, civ. law. A renewing of a former lease; relocation. (q. v.) Dig. 19, 2, 13, 11; Code Nap. art. 1737-1740.

RECONVENTION, civ. law. An action brought by a party who is defendant against the plaintiff before the same judge. Reconventio est petitio qua reus vicissim, quid ab actore petit, ex eadem, vel diversa causa. Voet, in tit. de Judiciis, n. 78; 4 N. S. 439. To entitle the defendant to institute a demand in reconvention, it is requisite that such demand, though different from the main action, be nevertheless necessarily connected with it and incidental to the same. Code of Pr. Lo. art. 375; 11 Lo. R. 309; 7 N. S. 282; 8 N. S. 516.

2. The reconvention of the civil law was a species of cross-bill. Story, Eq. Pl. 402. See Conventio; Bill in chancery. Vide Demand in reconvention.

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