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JUDICIAL. Belonging, or emanating from a judge, as such.

2. Judicial sales, are such as are ordered by virtue of the process of courts. 1 Supp. to Ves. jr., 129, 160; 2 Ves. jr., 50.

3. A judicial writ is one issued in the progress of the cause, in contradistinction to an original writ. 3 Bl. Com. 282.

4. Judicial decisions, are the opinions or determinations of the judges in causes before them. Hale, H. C. L. 68; Willes' R. 666; 3 Barn. & Ald. 122 4 Barn. & Adol. 207 1 H. B1. 63; 5 M. & S. 185.

5. Judicial power, the authority vested in the judges. The constitution of the United States declares, that "the judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the congress may, from time to time, ordain and establish." Art. 3, s. 1. 6. By the constitutions of the several states, the judicial power is vested in such courts as are enumerated in each respectively. See the names Of, the several states. There is nothing in the constitution of the United States to forbid or prevent the legislature of a state from exercising judicial functions; 2 Pet. R. 413; and judicial acts have occasionally been performed by the legislatures. 2 Root, R. 350; 3 Greenl. R. 334; 3 Dall. R. 386; 2 Pet. R. 660; 16 Mass. R. 328; Walk. R. 258; 1 New H. Rep. 199; 10 Yerg. R. 59; 4 Greenl. R. 140; 2 Chip., R. 77; 1 Aik. R. 314. But a state legislature cannot annul the judgments, nor determine the jurisdiction of the courts of the United States; 5 Cranch, It. 116; 2 Dall. R. 410; nor authoritatively declare what the law is, or has been, but what it shall be. 2 Cranch, R. 272; 4 Pick. R. 23. Vide Ayl. Parerg. 27; 3 M. R. 248; 4 M. R. 451; 9 M. R. 325; 6 M. R. 668; 12 M. R. 349; 3 N. S. 551; 5 N. S. 519; 1 L. R. 438 7 M. R. 325; 9 M. R. 204; 10 M. R. 1.

JUDICIAL ADMISSIONS. Those which are generally made in writing in court by the attorney of the party; they appear upon the record, as in the pleadings and the like.

JUDICIAL CONFESSIONS, criminal law. Those voluntarily made before a magistrate, or in a court, in the due course of legal proceedings. A preliminary examination, taken in writing, by a magistrate lawfully authorized, pursuant to a statute, or the plea of guilty, made in open court to an indictment, are sufficient to found a conviction upon them.

JUDICIAL CONVENTIONS. Agreements entered into in consequence of an order of court; as, for example, entering into a bond on taking out a writ of sequestration. 6 N. S. 494.

JUDICIAL MORTGAGE. In Louisiana, it is the lien resulting from judgments, whether these be rendered on contested cases, or by default, whether they be final or provisional, in favor of the person obtaining them. Civ. Code of Lo. art. 3289.

JUDICIAL SALE. A sale by authority of some competent tribunal, by an officer authorized by law for the purpose.

2. The officer who makes the sale, conveys all the rights of the defendant, or other person against whom the process has been issued, in the property sold. Under such a sale there is no warranty, either express or implied, of the thing sold. 9 Wheat. 616. When real estate is sold by the sheriff or marshal, the sale is subject to the confirmation of the court, or it may be set aside. See 4 Wash. C. C. R. 45 Wallace, 128; 4 Wash. C. C. R. 322.

JUDICIAL WRITS, Eng. practice. The capias and all other writs subsequent to the original writ not issuing out of chancery, but from the court into which the original was returnable, and being grounded on what had passed in that court in consequence of the sheriff's return, were called judicial writs, in contradistinction to the writs issued out of chancery, which were called original writs. 3 Bl. Com. 282.

JUDICIARY. That which is done while administering justice; the judges taken collectively; as, the liberties of the people are secured by a wise and independent judiciary. See Courts; and 3 Story, Const. B. 3, c. 3 8.

JUDICIUM DEI. The judgment of God. The English law formerly impiously called the judgments on trials by ordeal, by battle, and the like, the judgments of God.

JUICIO DE CONCURSO. This term is Spanish, and is used in Louisiana. It is the name of an action brought for the purpose of making a distribution of an insolvent's estate. It differs from all other actions in this important particular, that all the parties to it except the insolvent, are at once plaintiffs and defendant. Each creditor is plaintiff against the failing debtor, to recover the amount due by him, and against the co-creditors, to diminish the amount they demand from his estate, and each is, of necessity, defendant against the opposition made by the other creditors against his demand. From the peculiar situation in which the parties are thus placed, many distinct and separate suits arise, and are decided during the pendancy of the main one, by the insolvent in which they originate. 4 N. S. 601, 3 Harr. Cond. Lo. R. 409.

JUNIOR. Younger.

2. This has been held to be no part of a man's name, but an addition by use, and a convenient distinction between a father and son of the same name. 10 Mass. R. 203 10 Paige, 170; 1 Pick. R. 388; 7 John . It. 549; 2 Caines, 164 1 Pick. 388 15 Pick. 7; 17 Pick. 200 3 Metc. 330.

3. Any matter that distinguishes persons renders the addition of junior or senior unnecessary. 1 Mod. Ent. 35; Salk. 7. But if father and son have both the same name, the father shall be, prima facie, intended, if junior be not added, or some other matter of distinction. Salk, 7; 6 Rep. 20 11 Rep. 39; Hob. 330. If father and son have the same name and addition, and the former sue the latter, the writ is abateable unless the son have the further addition of junior, or the younger. But if the father be the defendant and the son the plaintiff, there is no need of the further addition of senior, or the elder, to the name of the father. 2 Hawk. 187; Laws of Women, 380.

JUNIPERUS SABINA, med. jur. This plant is commonly called savine.

2. It is used for lawful purposes in medicine, but too frequently for the criminal intent of producing abortion, generally endangering the life of the woman. It is usually administered in powder or oil. The dose of oil for lawful purposes, for a grown person, is from two to four drops. Parr's Med. Dictionary, article Sabina. Fodere mentions a case where a large dose of powdered savine had been administered to an ignorant girl, in the seventh month of her pregnancy, which had no effect on the foetus. It was, however, near taking the life of the girl. Fodere, tome iv. p. 431. Given in sufficiently large doses, four or six grains in the form of powder, kills a dog in a few hours, and even its insertion into a wound has tho same effect. Orfila, Traite des Poisons, tome iii. p. 42. For or a form of indictment for administering savine to a woman quick with child, see 3 Chit. Cr. Law, 798. Vide 1 Beck's Med. Jur. 316,

JURA PERSONARUM. The rights and duties of persons are so called.

JURA RERUM. The rights which a man may acquire in and to such external things as are unconnected with. his person, are called jura rerum. 2 Bl. Com. 1.

JURA SUMMA IMPERII. Rights of sovereignty or supreme dominion.

JURAMENTAE CORPORALIA. Corporal oaths. These oaths are so called, because the party making oath must touch the Bible, or other thing by which he swears.

JURAMENTUM JUDICIALE. A term in the civil law. The oath called juramentum judiciale is that which the judge, of his wwn accord, defers to either of the parties.

2. It is of two kinds. 1st. That which the judge defers for the decision of the cause, and which is understood by the general name juramentum judiciale, and is sometimes called suppletory oath, juramentum suppletorium.

3. - 2d. That which the judge defers in order to fix and determine the amount of the condemnation which he ought to pronounce, and which is called juramentum in litem. Poth. on Oblig. P. 4, s. 3, art. 3.

JURAT Practice. That part of an affidavit where the officer certifies that the same was "sworn" before him.

2. The jurat is usually in the following form, namely "Sworn and subscribed before me, on the ____ day of _______, 1842, J. P. justice of the peace."

3. In some cases it has been holden that it was essential that the officer should sign the jurat, and that it should contain his addition and official description. 3 Caines, 128. But see 6 Wend. 543; 12 Wend. 223; 2 Cowen. 552 2 Wend. 283; 2 John. 479; Harr. Dig. h. t.; Am. Eq. Dig.

JURATA. A certificate placed at the bottom of an affidavit, declaring that the witness has been sworn or affirmed to the truth of the facts therein alleged. Its usual form is,: Sworn (or affirmed) before me, the ____ day of ____, 10 __." The Jurat. (q. v.)

JURATS, officers. In some English corporations, jurats are officers who have much the same power as aldermen in others. Stat. 1 Ed. IV. Stat. 2 & 3 Ed. VI. c. 30; 13 Ed. I., c. 26.

JURE. By law; by right; in right; as, jure civilis, by the civil law; jure gentium, by the law of nations; jure representationis, by right of representation; jure uxoris, in right of a wife.

JURIDICAL. Signifies used in courts of law; done in conformity to the laws of the country, and the practice which is there observed.

JURIDICAL DAYS. Dies juridici. Days in court on which the law is administered.

JURIS ET DE JURE. A phrase employed to denote conclusive presumptions of law, which cannot be rebutted by evidence. The words signify of law and from law. Best on Presumption, 17.

JURISCONSULT. One well versed in jurisprudence; a jurist: one whose profession it is to give counsel on questions of law.

JURISDICTION, Practice. A power constitutionally conferred upon a judge or magistrate, to take cognizance of, and decide causes according to law, and to carry his sentence into execution. 6 Pet. 591; 9 John. 239. The tract of land or district within which a judge or magistrate has jurisdiction, is called his territory, and his power in relation to his territory is called his territorial jurisdiction.

2. Every act of jurisdiction exercised by a judge without his territory, either by pronouncing sentence or carrying it into execution, is null. An inferior court has no jurisdiction beyond what is expressly delegated. 1 Salk. 404, n.; Gilb. C. P. 188; 1 Saund. 73; 2 Lord Raym. 1311; and see Bac. Ab. Courts, &c., C, et seq; Bac. Ab. Pleas, E 2.

3. Jurisdiction is original, when it is conferred on the court in the first instance, which is called original jurisdiction; (q. v.) or it is appellate, which is when an appeal is given from the judgment of another court. Jurisdiction is also civil, where the subject-matter to be tried is not of a criminal nature; or criminal, where the court is to punish crimes. Some courts and magistrates have both civil and criminal jurisdiction. Jurisdiction is also concurrent, exclusive, or assistant. Concurrent jurisdiction is that which may be entertained by several courts. It is a rule that in cases of concurrent jurisdictions, that which is first seized of the case shall try it to the exclusion of the other. Exclusive jurisdiction is that which has alone the power to try or determine the Suit, action, or matter in dispute. assistant jurisdiction is that which is afforded by a court of chancery, in aid of a court of law; as, for example, by a bill of discovery, by the examination of witnesses de bene esse, or out of the jurisdiction of the court; by the perpetuation of the testimony of witnesses, and the like.

4. It is the law which gives jurisdiction; the consent of, parties, cannot, therefore, confer it, in a matter which the law excludes. 1 N. & M. 192; 3 M'Cord, 280; 1 Call. 55; 1 J. S. Marsh. 476; 1 Bibb, 263; Cooke, 27; Minor, 65; 3 Litt. 332; 6 Litt. 303; Kirby, 111; 1 Breese, 32; 2 Yerg. 441; 1 Const. R. 478. But where the court has jurisdiction of the matter, and the defendant has some privilege which exempts him from the jurisdiction, he may wave the privilege. 5 Cranch, 288; 1 Pet. 449; 8 Wheat. 699; 4 W. C. C. R. 84; 4 M'Cord, 79; 4 Mass. 593; Wright, 484. See Hardin, 448; 2 Wash. 213.

5. Courts of inferior jurisdiction must act within their jurisdiction, and so it must appear upon the record. 5 Cranch, 172 Pet. C. C. R. 36; 4 Dall. 11; 2 Mass. 213; 4 Mass. 122; 8 Mass. 86; 11 Mass. 513; Pr. Dec. 380; 2 Verm. 329; 3 Verm. 114; 10 Conn. 514; 4 John. 292; 3 Yerg. 355; Walker, 75; 9 Cowen, 227; 5 Har. & John. 36; 1 Bailey, 459; 2 Bailey, 267. But the legislature may, by a general or special law, provide otherwise. Pet. C. C. R. 36. Vide 1 Salk. 414; Bac. Ab. Courts, &c., C. D; Id. Prerogative, E 6; Merlin, Rep. h. t.; Ayl. Pat. 317, and the art. Competency. As to the force of municipal law beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the state, see Wheat. Intern. Law, part a, c. 2, 7, et seq.; Story, Confl. of Laws, c. 2; Huberus, lib. 1, t. 3; 13 Mass. R. 4 Pard. Dr. Com. part. 6, t. 7, c. 2, 1; and the articles Conflict of Laws; Courts of the United States. See generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.

JURISDICTION CLAUSE. That part of a bill in chancery which is intended to give jnrisdiction of the suit to, the court, by a general averment that the' acts complained of are contrary to equity, and tend to the injury of the plaintiff, and that. he has no remedy, or not a complete remedy, without the assistance of a court of equity, is called the jurisdiction clause. Mitf. Eq. Pl. by Jeremy, 43.

2. This clause is unnecessary, for if the court appear from the bill, to have jurisdiction, the bill will be sustained without this clause; and if the court have not jurisdiction, the bill will be dismissed though the clause may be inserted. Story, Eq. Pl. 34.

JURISPRUDENCE. The science of the law. By science here, is understood that connexion of truths which is founded on principles either evident in themselves, or capable of demonstration; a collection of truths of the same kind, arranged in methodical order. In a more confined sense, jurisprudence is the practical science of giving a wise interpretation to the laws, and making a just application of them to all cases as they arise. In this sense, it is the habit of judging the same questions in the same manner, and by this course of judgments forming precedents. 1 Ayl. Pand. 3 Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. tit. prel. s. 1, n. 1, 12, 99; Merl. Rep. h. t.; 19 Amer. Jurist, 3.

JURIST. One well versed in the science of the law. The term i's usually applied to students and practitioners of law.

JUROR, practice. From juro, to swear; a man who is sworn or affirmed to serve on a jury.

2. Jurors are selected from citizens, and may be compelled to serve by fine; they generally receive a compensation for their services while attending court they are privileged from arrest in civil cases.

JURY. A body of men selected according to law, for the purpose of deciding some controversy.

2. This mode of trial by jury was adopted soon after the conquest of England, by William, and was fully established for the trial of civil suits in the reign of Henry II. Crabb's C. L. 50, 61. In the old French law they are called inquests or tourbes of ten men. 2 Loisel's Instit. 238, 246, 248.

3. Juries are either grand juries, (q. v.) or petit juries. The former having been treated of elsewhere, it will only be necessary to consider the latter. A petit jury consists of twelve citizens duly qualified to serve on juries, impanneled and sworn to try one or more issues of facts submitted to them, and to give a judgment respecting the same, which is called a verdict.

4. Each one of the citizens so impanneled and sworn is called a juror. Vide Trial.

5. The constitution of the United States directs, that "the trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury;" and this invaluable institution is also, secured by the several state constitutions. The constitution of the United States also provides that in suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved. Amendm. VII.

6. It is scarcely practicable to give the rules established in the different states to secure impartial juries; it may, however, be stated that in all, the selection of persons who are to serve on the jury is made by disinterested officers, and that out of -the lists thus made out, the jurors are selected by lot.

JURY BOX. A place set apart for the jury to sit in during the trial of a cause. JURY LIST. A paper containing the names of jurors impanneled to try a cause, or it contains the names of all the jurors summoned to attend court.

JUS. Law or right. This term is applied in many modern phrases. It is also used to signify equity. Story, Eq. Jur. 1; Bract, lib. 1, c. 4, p. 3; Tayl. Civ. Law, 147; Dig. 1, 1, 1.

2. The English law, like the Roman, has its jus antiquum and jus novum and jus novissimum. The jus novum may be supposed to have taken its origin about the end of the reign of Henry VII. A. D. 1509. It assumed a regular form towards the end of the reign of Charles II. A. D. 1685, and from that period the jus novissimum may be dated. Lord Coke, who was born 40 years after the death of Henry VII. is most advantageously considered as the connecting link of the jus antiquum and jus novissimum of English law. Butler's Remin.

JUS ABUTENDI. The right to abuse. By this phrase is understood the right to abuse property, or having full dominion over property. 3 Toull. n. 86.

JUS ACCRESCENDI. The right of survivorship.

2. At common law, when one of several joint tenants died, the entire tenancy or estate went to the survivors, and so on to the last survivor, who took an estate of inheritance. This right, except in estates held in trust, has been abolished by statute in Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri Mississippi, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, South-Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. Griff. Reg. h. t.; 1 Hill. Ab. 439, 440. In Connecticut, 1 Root, Rep. 48; 1 Swift's Dig. 102. In Louisiana, this right was never recognized. See 11 Serg. & R. 192; 2 Caines, Cas. Err. 326; 3 Verm. 543; 6 Monr. R. 15; Estate in common; Estate in joint tenancy.

JUS AD REM. property, title. This phrase is applied to designate the right a man has in relation to a thing; it is not the right in the thing itself, but only against the person who has contracted to deliver it. It is a mere imperfect or inchoate right. 2 Bl. Com. 312 Poth. Dr. de Dom. de Propriete, ch. prel. n. 1. This phrase is nearly equivalent to chose in action. 2 Wooddes. Lect. 235. See, 2 P. Wms. 491; 1 Mason, 221 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 506; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. 1215; Story, Ag. 352; and Jus in re.

JUS AQUAEDUCTUS, CIV. law. The name of a servitude which Lives to the owner of land the right to bring down water through or from the land of another, either from its source or from any other place.

2. Its privilege may be limited as to the time when it may be exercised. If the source fails, the servitude ceases, but revives when the water returns. If the water rises in, or naturally flows through the land, its proprietor cannot by any grant divert it so as to prevent it flowing to the land below. 2 Roll. Ab. 140, l. 25; Lois des Bat. part. 1, c. 3, s. 1, art. 1. But if it had been brought. into his land by artificial means, it seems it would be, strictly his property, and that it would be in his power to grant it. Dig. 8, 3, 1 & 10; 3 Burge on the Confl. of Laws, 417. Vide Rain water.; River; Water-course.

JUS CIVILE. Among the Romans by jus civile was understood the civil law, in contradistinction to the public law, or jus gentium. 1 Savigny, Dr. Rom. c. 1, 1.

JUS CIVITATIS. Among the Romans the collection of laws which are to be observed among all the members of a nation were so called. It is opposed to jus gentium, which is the law which regulates the affairs of nations among themselves. 2 Lepage, El. du Dr. ch. 5, page l.

JUS CLOACAE, civil law. The name of a servitude which requires the paity who is subject to it, to permit his neighbor to conduct the waters which fall on his grounds over those of the servient estate.

JUS DARE. To give or to make the law. Jus dare belongs to the legislature; jus dicere to the judge.

JUS DICERE. To declare the law. This word is used to explain the power which the court has to expound the law; and not to make it, jus dare.

JUS DELIBERANDI. The right of deliberating, which in some countries, where the heir may have benefit of inventory, (q. v.) is given to him to consider whether he will accept or renounce the succession.

2. In Louisiana he is allowed ten days before he is required to make his election. Civ. Code, art. 1028.

JUS DISPONENDI. The right to dispose of a thing.

JUS DUPLICATUM, property, title. When a man has the possession as well as the property of anything, he is said to have a double right, jus duplicatum. Bract. 1. 4, tr. 4, c. 4 2 Bl. Com. 199.

JUS FECIALE. Among the Romans it was that species of international law which had its foundation in the religious belief of different nations, such as the international law which now exists among the Christian people of Europe. Sav. Dr. Rom. ch. 2,

JUS FIDUCIARUM, Civil law. A right to something held in trust; for this there was a remedy in conscience. 2 Bl. Com. 328.

JUS GENTIUM. The law of nations. (q. v.) Although the Romans used these words in the sense we attach to law of nations, yet among them the sense was much more extended. Falck, Encyc. Jur. 102, n. 42.

2. Some modern writers have made a distinction between the laws of nations which have for their object the conflict between. the laws of different nations, which they call jus gentium privatum, or private international law; and those laws of nations which regulate those matters which nations, as such, have with each other, which is de nominated jus gentium publicum, or public international law. Foelix, Droit Interm. Prive, n. 14.

JUS GLADII. Supreme jurisdiction. The right to absolve from, or condemn a man to death.

JUS HABENDI. The right to have and enjoy a thing.

JUS INCOGNITUM. An unknown law. This term is applied by the civilians to obsolete laws, which, as Bacon truly observes, are unjust, for the law to be just must give warning before it strikes. Bac. Aphor. 8, s. 1: Bowy. Mod. Civ. Law, 33. But until it has become obsolete no custom can prevail against it. Vide Obsolete.

JUS LEGITIMUM, civil law. A legal right which might have been enforced by due course of law.. 2 Bl. Com. 328.

JUS MARITI, Scotch law. The right of the hushand to administer, during the marriage, his wife's goods and the rents of her heritage.

2. In the common law, by jus mariti is understood the rights of the hushand; as, jus mariti cannot attach upon a bequest to the wife, although given during coverture, until the executor has assented to the legacy. 1 Bail. Eq. R. 214.

JUS MERUM. A simple or bare right; a right to property in land, without possession, or the right of possession.

JUS PATRONATUS, eccl. law. A commission from the bishop, directed usually to his chancellor and others of competent learning, who are required to summon a jury composed of six clergymen and six laymen, to inquire into and examine who is the rightful patron. 3 Bl. Com. 246.

JUS PERSONARUM. The right of persons.

2. A branch of the law which embraces the theory of the different classes of men who exist in a state which has been formed by nature or by society; it includes particularly the theory of the ties of families, and the legal form and juridical effects of the relations subsisting between them. The Danes, the English, and the learned in this country, class under this head the relations which exist between men in a political point of view. Blackstone, among others, has adopted this classification. There seems a confusion of ideas when such matters are placed under this head. Vide Bl. Com. Book 1.

JUS PRECARIUM, civil law. A right to a thing held for another, for which there was no remedy. 2 Bl. Com. 328.

JUS POSTLIMINII, property, title. The right to claim property after re-capture. Vide, Postliminy; Marsh. Ins. 573; 1 Kent, Com. 108. Dane's Ab. Index, h. t.

JUS PROJICIENDI, Civil law. The name of a servitude; it is the right which the owner of a building has of projecting a part of his building towards the adjoining house, without resting on the latter. It is extended merely over the ground. Dig. 50, 16, 242, 1; Dig. 8, 2, 25; Dig. 8, 5, 8, 5.

JUS PROTEGENDI, civil law. The name of a servitude; it is a right by which a part of the roof or tiling of one house is made to extend over the adjoining house. Dig. 50, 16, 242, 1 Dig. 8, 2, 25; Dig. 8, 5, 8, 5.

JUS QUAESITUM. A right to ask or recover; for example, in an obligation there is a binding of the obligor, and a jus quaesitum in the obligee. 1 Bell's Com. 323, 5th ed.

JUS IN RE, property, title. The right which a man has in a thing by which it belongs to him. It is a complete and full right. Poth. Dr. de Dora. de Prop. n. 1.

2. This phrase of the civil law conveys the same idea as thing, in possession does with us. 4 Wooddes. Lect. 235; vide 2 P. Wins. 491; 1 Mason, 221; 1 Story, Eq. Jur. 506; 2 Story, Eq. Jur. 1215; Story, Ag. 352; and Jus ad rem.

JUS RELICTA, Scotch law. The right of a wife, after her hushand's death, to a third of movables, if there be children; and to one-half, if there be none.

JUS RERUM. The right of things. Its principal object is to ascertain how far a person can have a permanent dominion over things, and how that dominion is acquired. Vide Bl. Com. Book 2.

JUS STRICTUM. A Latin phrase, which signifies law interpreted without any modification, and in its utmost rigor.

JUS UTENDI. The right to use property, without destroying its substance. It is employed in contradistinction to the jus abutendi. (q. v.) 3 Toull. n. 86.

JUST. This epithet is applied to that which agrees with a given law which is the test of right and wrong. 1 Toull. prel. n. 5 Aust. Jur. 276, n. It is that which accords with the perfect rights of others. Wolff, Inst. 83; Swinb. part 1, s. 2, n. 5, and part 1, 4, n. 3. By just is also understood full and perfect, as a just weight Swinb. part 1, s. 3, U. 5.

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